The Impact of Health Education Intervention for Prevention and Early Detection of Type 2 Diabetes in Women with Gestational Diabetes
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This study aims to investigate the impact of a health belief model (HBM)-based educational intervention on knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational and postpartum weight in women with gestational diabetes mellitus (GDM). Subjects and Methods: A cluster randomized controlled trial was performed, with randomization at the level of Primary Health Care centers in three Egyptian cities. Eligible women with GDM were enrolled at 24 weeks pregnancy. The intervention group (n = 103) received health education intervention based on the HBM construct. Control subjects (n = 98) received the usual care. The outcomes measured were: women’s knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, gestational weight gain (GWG), and postpartum weight retention. Patients were investigated at baseline, at end of pregnancy, and at 6 weeks postpartum. Results: After the intervention, percentages of women who had high knowledge and beliefs scores had significantly increased from less than 50 % to more than 70 % in the intervention group (p < 0.001). More women in the intervention group reported practicing exclusive breast feeding (85.4 %) and screening for T2DM (43.7 %) at 6 weeks postpartum compared to the control group (63.3 and 19.4 % respectively) (p < 0.001). More women with excessive body mass index in the intervention group (65 %) compared to the control group (11.6 %) were meeting recommended GWG (p < 0.001), and postpartum weight (37.7, and 20.3 % respectively) (p < 0.01). Conclusion: This intervention significantly improved knowledge, beliefs, self-reported practices, and gestational and postpartum weight in patients with GDM. Further research is needed for investigating the effectiveness of applying early, multi-phase, and longer intervention.
KeywordsGestational diabetes Health belief model Type 2 diabetes mellitus Gestational weight gain Postpartum weight retention
There was no funding support for this research. The author thanks physicians, and nurses of the primary health care centers, and all patients who participated in the current study for their important contributions. The author thanks Diane See O.D. Optometrist Eye and Vision Care of Santa Barbara, for her careful revision and editing of the manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of Interest
The author declares that she has no conflict of interest.
All procedures performed in the current study were in accordance with the ethical standards of the Research Ethics Committee of Suez Canal University in Ismailia-Egypt (approval number: 2619) and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
All individual participants included in the study have signed an informed consent.
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