Reasons for Using Electronic Cigarettes and Intentions to Quit Among Electronic Cigarette Users in Malaysia
- 747 Downloads
The rapidly increasing uptake of e-cigarettes in Malaysia as of late demands a study to identify factors leading to its increased popularity and user intentions to quit smoking e-cigarettes. A convenience sample of e-cigarette smokers visiting e-cigarette retail shops in Selangor and Kuala Lumpur was recruited. The majority of e-cigarette smokers were youth in colleges or universities (39 %), and young professionals and managers (36 %). The main reasons for using e-cigarettes were to help the user quit tobacco cigarettes (88 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes (85 %) and can be used in public areas (70 %), the perception that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes (85 %), and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes (65 %). A total of 65.3 % of respondents expressed intentions to quit e-cigarettes. In a multivariate analysis, the respondents who earned monthly income of RM1000 or less were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.551; 95 % CI 1.022–2.355; p = 0.015] compared to the respondents who earned a monthly income of more than RM2000. The respondents who disagreed with the statement ‘Smoking e-cigs is relatively cheaper compared to tobacco cigarettes’ were significantly more likely to intend to quit smoking e-cigarettes [OR 1.548; 95 % CI 1.045–2.293; p = 0.027] compared to respondents who did not agree. e-cigarette preventive interventions should target areas related to the identified main reasons for using e-cigarettes, namely as an aid for quitting tobacco cigarettes, the perception that e-cigarettes are not as intrusive as tobacco cigarettes and can be used in public areas, the idea that e-cigarettes are healthier than tobacco cigarettes, and its relatively lower cost compared to tobacco cigarettes.
KeywordsElectronic cigarette Intention to quit e-cig
The study was funded by University of Malaya Research Grant (UMRG) RP030 (A)-14HTM.
Wong Li Ping conceived the study and wrote the manuscript. Mohamed Shakir Sharina Mahavera and Alias Haridah performed the data collection. Agha Mohammadi Nasrin and Hoe Victor Chee Wai revised the manuscript and gave approval of the version to be published. All authors read and approved the final manuscript.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- 2.Sumisha, N. (2015). Malaysia to regulate sale of e-cigarette liquids. The New York Times. http://www.channelnewsasia.com/news/asiapacific/malaysia-to-regulate-sale/2248560.html.
- 3.Lokman, H.S. Ministry of Health, Malaysia. (2015). Ministry of Health will act on electronic cigarette containing nicotine using The Poison Act 1952 [Press release]. http://www.moh.gov.my/english.php/file_manager/dl_item/6132567565574630595734675957746f596d46794c30746c626e6c6864474668626c39426132686959584a6654553949583239755832557459326c6e59584a6c6448526c583246755a4639325958426c587a41304d5445784e563946626d647361584e6f4c6e426b5a673d3d
- 4.Scawen, S. (2015). E-cigarette bans in Malaysia spark debate. Al Jazeera. https://en-maktoob.news.yahoo.com/e-cigarette-bans-malaysia-spark-debate-215744469–finance.html?nhp=1.
- 10.Berg, C. J., Barr, D. B., Stratton, E., Escoffery, C., & Kegler, M. (2014). Attitudes toward e-cigarettes, reasons for initiating e-cigarette use, and changes in smoking behaviour after initiation: A pilot longitudinal study of regular cigarette smokers. Open Journal Of Preventive Medicine, 4(10), 789.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 14.Britton J, Bogdanovica, I. (2014). Electronic cigarettes. A report commissioned by Public Health England. UK Centre for Tobacco and Alcohol Studies Division of Epidemiology and Public Health, University of Nottingham.Google Scholar
- 19.U.S. Department of Health and Human Services. (2004). The Health Consequences of Smoking: A Report of the Surgeon General. Atlanta, GA: U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Centres for Disease Control and Prevention, National Centre for Chronic Disease Prevention and Health Promotion, Office on Smoking and Health.Google Scholar
- 20.Caponnetto, P., Campagna, D., Cibella, F., et al. (2013). Efficiency and Safety of an electronic cigarette (ECLAT) as tobacco cigarettes substitute: A prospective 12-month randomized control design study. PLoS One, 8(6), e66317. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0066317.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 22.Bullen, C., McRobbie, H., Thornley, S., Glover, M., Lin, R., & Laugesen, M. (2010). Effect of an electronic nicotine delivery device (e cigarette) on desire to smoke and withdrawal, user preferences and nicotine delivery: Randomised cross-over trial. Tobacco Control, 19(2), 98–103.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- 23.Vansickel, A. R., Cobb, C. O., Weaver, M. F., & Eissenberg, T. E. (2010). A clinical laboratory model for evaluating the acute effects of electronic ‘cigarettes’: Nicotine delivery profile and cardiovascular and subjective effects. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers and Prevention, 19(8), 1945–1953.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 25.Kalkhoran, S., & Glantz, S. A. (2016). E-cigarettes and smoking cessation in real-world and clinical settings: A systematic review and meta-analysis. The Lancet Respiratory Medicine.Google Scholar
- 26.Nelson, V. A., Goniewicz, M. L., Beard, E., et al. (2015). Comparison of the characteristics of long-term users of electronic cigarettes versus nicotine replacement therapy: A cross-sectional survey of English ex-smokers and current smokers. Drug and Alcohol Dependence, 153, 300–305. doi: 10.1016/j.drugalcdep.2015.05.005.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- 29.Westenberger, B. J. (2009). Evaluation of e-cigarettes (pp. 1–8). St Louis, MO: Food and Drug Administration.Google Scholar
- 33.Chaloupka, F. J., & Warner, K. E. (2000). The economics of smoking. Handbook of Health Economics (pp. 1539–1627). New York: Elsevier.Google Scholar