Journal of Community Health

, Volume 41, Issue 4, pp 767–771 | Cite as

Prevalence, Awareness and Determinants of Diabetic Retinopathy in a Screening Centre in Nigeria

  • Nkiru N. Kizor-Akaraiwe
  • Ifeoma R. EzegwuiEmail author
  • Ngozi Oguego
  • Nkechi J. Uche
  • Ifeoma N. Asimadu
  • Jude Shiweobi
Original Paper


There is a global rise in the prevalence of diabetes and this has led to a rise in the consequences of diabetes such as diabetic retinopathy (DR). The current study aims to determine the prevalence, awareness and determinants of DR among diabetics who attended a screening centre in Enugu, south-eastern Nigeria. A descriptive cross-sectional study was carried out among consenting diabetic patients who visited the centre. An interviewer-administered questionnaire was used to gather information on demographic details, the knowledge of the participants on effects of diabetes on the eye and previous care they had received for their eyes. Each participant underwent eye examination which included posterior segment examination with slit lamp biomicroscopy with +90DS lens after pupil dilation. A total of 80 eligible participants were examined. The prevalence of any DR among the participants was 32.1 % (95 % CI 20.6–43.5) whereas prevalence of proliferative diabetic retinopathy, PDR was 6.4 % and diabetic macular oedema, DME was 31.3 %. Age at onset of diabetes and duration of diabetes were the most determinant factors associated with DR (p = 0.039 and p = 0.000 respectively). Only ten (12.5 %) participants had undergone at least one specific eye examination to check for DR since they were diagnosed with diabetes. The major reason for not having had a prior screening is ‘no one referred me for it’ (31 participants, 44.3 %). DR is emerging as an important cause of blindness and severe visual impairment. Adequate screening programme and treatment protocol need to be set up for this population even in developing countries to prevent blindness.


Diabetic retinopathy Prevalence Awareness Determinants 



The authors would like to express gratitude to Drs. Monye HI, Eze G, Nwachukwu N, Eze CC and Jac-Okereke C who assisted them during the survey.


This study was funded by the authors.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

All authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Nkiru N. Kizor-Akaraiwe
    • 1
  • Ifeoma R. Ezegwui
    • 2
    Email author
  • Ngozi Oguego
    • 2
  • Nkechi J. Uche
    • 2
  • Ifeoma N. Asimadu
    • 1
  • Jude Shiweobi
    • 3
  1. 1.Department of OphthalmologyESUT College of MedicineEnuguNigeria
  2. 2.Department of Ophthalmology, College of MedicineUniversity of NigeriaEnuguNigeria
  3. 3.Department of OphthalmologyFederal Teaching HospitalAbakalikiNigeria

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