Springer Nature is making SARS-CoV-2 and COVID-19 research free. View research | View latest news | Sign up for updates

Measuring the Food Environment and its Effects on Obesity in the United States: A Systematic Review of Methods and Results

Abstract

We identified fifty-one peer-reviewed studies that geospatially analyzed the relationship between the community nutrition environment (CNE) and obesity. Eighty percent of studies found at least one significant association between the CNE and obesity. However we calculated the proportion of studies that found at least one significant association between the CNE and obesity in the expected direction for each food store type and measurement technique, and the proportion across the different store types and measurement techniques was just 32 %. Different methods for classifying, locating, and analyzing food stores produced mixed results and challenged direct study level comparison.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Fig. 1

References

  1. 1.

    Flegal, K. M., Carroll, M. D., Ogden, C. L., & Curtin, L. R. (2010). Prevalence and trends in obesity among US adults, 1999–2008. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 303(3), 235–241. doi:10.1001/jama.2009.2014.

  2. 2.

    Ogden, C. L., Carroll, M. D., Kit, B. K., & Flegal, K. M. (2012). Prevalence of obesity and trends in body mass index among US children and adolescents, 1999–2010. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 307(5), 483–490. doi:10.1001/jama.2012.40.

  3. 3.

    Flegal, K. M., Graubard, B. I., Williamson, D. F., & Gail, M. H. (2007). Cause-specific excess deaths associated with underweight, overweight, and obesity. JAMA, the Journal of the American Medical Association, 298(17), 2028–2037. doi:10.1001/jama.298.17.2028.

  4. 4.

    Nader, P. R., Huang, T. T., Gahagan, S., Kumanyika, S., Hammond, R. A., & Christoffel, K. K. (2012). Next steps in obesity prevention: Altering early life systems to support healthy parents, infants, and toddlers. Childhood Obesity (Print), 8(3), 195–204. doi:10.1089/chi.2012.0004.

  5. 5.

    Woodman, J., Lorenc, T., Harden, A., & Oakley, A. (2008). Social and environmental interventions to reduce childhood obesity: A systematic map of reviews. London: EPPI-Centre, Social Science Research Unit, Institute of Education, University of London.

  6. 6.

    Glanz, K., Sallis, J. F., Saelens, B. E., & Frank, L. D. (2005). Healthy nutrition environments: Concepts and measures. American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP, 19(5), 330–333., ii.

  7. 7.

    Story, M., Kaphingst, K. M., Robinson-O’Brien, R., & Glanz, K. (2008). Creating healthy food and eating environments: Policy and environmental approaches. Annual Review of Public Health, 29, 253–272. doi:10.1146/annurev.publhealth.29.020907.090926.

  8. 8.

    Giskes, K., van Lenthe, F., Avendano-Pabon, M., & Brug, J. (2011). A systematic review of environmental factors and obesogenic dietary intakes among adults: Are we getting closer to understanding obesogenic environments? Obesity Reviews: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity, 12(5), e95–e106. doi:10.1111/j.1467-789X.2010.00769.x.

  9. 9.

    Papas, M. A., Alberg, A. J., Ewing, R., Helzlsouer, K. J., Gary, T. L., & Klassen, A. C. (2007). The built environment and obesity. Epidemiologic Reviews, 29, 129–143. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxm009.

  10. 10.

    Booth, K. M., Pinkston, M. M., & Poston, W. S. (2005). Obesity and the built environment. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 105(5 Suppl 1), S110–S117. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2005.02.045.

  11. 11.

    Feng, J., Glass, T. A., Curriero, F. C., Stewart, W. F., & Schwartz, B. S. (2010). The built environment and obesity: A systematic review of the epidemiologic evidence. Health & Place, 16(2), 175–190. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2009.09.008.

  12. 12.

    Chen, S., Florax, R. J., Snyder, S., & Miller, C. C. (2010). Obesity and access to chain grocers. Economic Geography, 86(4), 431–452.

  13. 13.

    Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. (2014). Body mass index. http://www.cdc.gov/healthyweight/assessing/bmi/index.html. Accessed 12 Aug 2014.

  14. 14.

    Janevic, T., Borrell, L. N., Savitz, D. A., Herring, A. H., & Rundle, A. (2010). Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City. Paediatric and Perinatal Epidemiology, 24(3), 249–254. doi:10.1111/j.1365-3016.2010.01107.x.

  15. 15.

    Howard, P. H., Fitzpatrick, M., & Fulfrost, B. (2011). Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: An ecological study in California. BMC Public Health, 11, 68. doi:10.1186/1471-2458-11-68.

  16. 16.

    Smoyer-Tomic, K. E., Spence, J. C., Raine, K. D., et al. (2008). The association between neighborhood socioeconomic status and exposure to supermarkets and fast food outlets. Health & Place, 14(4), 740–754. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2007.12.001.

  17. 17.

    Jilcott, S. B., Keyserling, T., Crawford, T., McGuirt, J. T., & Ammerman, A. S. (2011). Examining associations among obesity and per capita farmers’ markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters in US counties. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(4), 567–572. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.01.010.

  18. 18.

    Zick, C. D., Smith, K. R., Fan, J. X., Brown, B. B., Yamada, I., & Kowaleski-Jones, L. (2009). Running to the Store? The relationship between neighborhood environments and the risk of obesity. Social Science and Medicine, 69(10), 1493–1500. doi:10.1016/j.socscimed.2009.08.032.

  19. 19.

    Dean, W. R., Sharkey, J. R., & St John, J. (2011). Pulga (flea market) contributions to the retail food environment of colonias in the South Texas border region. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 111(5), 705–710. doi:10.1016/j.jada.2011.02.009.

  20. 20.

    Truong, K., Fernandes, M., An, R., Shier, V., & Sturm, R. (2010). Measuring the physical food environment and its relationship with obesity: Evidence from California. Public Health, 124(2), 115–118. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2009.12.004.

  21. 21.

    Bader, M. D., Purciel, M., Yousefzadeh, P., & Neckerman, K. M. (2010). Disparities in neighborhood food environments: Implications of measurement strategies. Economic Geography, 86(4), 409–430.

  22. 22.

    Laraia, B., Epel, E., & Siega-Riz, A. M. (2013). Food insecurity with past experience of restrained eating is a recipe for increased gestational weight gain. Appetite, 65, 178–184. doi:10.1016/j.appet.2013.01.018.

  23. 23.

    Oliver, L. N., Schuurman, N., & Hall, A. W. (2007). Comparing circular and network buffers to examine the influence of land use on walking for leisure and errands. International Journal of Health Geographics, 6, 41. doi:10.1186/1476-072x-6-41.

  24. 24.

    An, R., & Sturm, R. (2012). School and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among California youth. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 42(2), 129–135. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2011.10.012.

  25. 25.

    Moore, L. V., Diez Roux, A. V., Nettleton, J. A., & Jacobs, D. R, Jr. (2008). Associations of the local food environment with diet quality—a comparison of assessments based on surveys and geographic information systems: the multi-ethnic study of atherosclerosis. American Journal of Epidemiology, 167(8), 917–924. doi:10.1093/aje/kwm394.

  26. 26.

    Forsyth, A., Van Riper, D., Larson, N., Wall, M., & Neumark-Sztainer, D. (2012). Creating a replicable, valid cross-platform buffering technique: The sausage network buffer for measuring food and physical activity built environments. International Journal of Health Geographics, 11, 14. doi:10.1186/1476-072x-11-14.

  27. 27.

    Mellor, J. M., Dolan, C. B., & Rapoport, R. B. (2010). Child body mass index, obesity, and proximity to fast food restaurants. International Journal of Pediatric Obesity: IJPO: An Official Journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity,. doi:10.3109/17477161003777433.

  28. 28.

    Sturm, R. (2008). Disparities in the food environment surrounding US middle and high schools. Public Health, 122(7), 681–690. doi:10.1016/j.puhe.2007.09.004.

  29. 29.

    Michimi, A., & Wimberly, M. C. (2010). Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States. International Journal of Health Geographics, 9, 49. doi:10.1186/1476-072x-9-49.

  30. 30.

    Brown, A. F., Vargas, R. B., Ang, A., & Pebley, A. R. (2008). The neighborhood food resource environment and the health of residents with chronic conditions: The food resource environment and the health of residents. Journal of General Internal Medicine, 23(8), 1137–1144. doi:10.1007/s11606-008-0601-5.

  31. 31.

    Ohri-Vachaspati, P., Martinez, D., Yedidia, M. J., & Petlick, N. (2011). Improving data accuracy of commercial food outlet databases. American Journal of Health Promotion: AJHP, 26(2), 116–122. doi:10.4278/ajhp.100120-QUAN-21.

  32. 32.

    Oreskovic, N. M., Winickoff, J. P., Kuhlthau, K. A., Romm, D., & Perrin, J. M. (2009). Obesity and the built environment among Massachusetts children. Clin Pediatr (Phila), 48(9), 904–912. doi:10.1177/0009922809336073.

  33. 33.

    Moore, L. V., & Diez Roux, A. V. (2006). Associations of neighborhood characteristics with the location and type of food stores. American Journal of Public Health, 96(2), 325–331. doi:10.2105/ajph.2004.058040.

  34. 34.

    Rundle, A., Neckerman, K. M., Freeman, L., et al. (2009). Neighborhood food environment and walkability predict obesity in New York City. Environmental Health Perspectives, 117(3), 442–447. doi:10.1289/ehp.11590.

  35. 35.

    Sharkey, J. R., & Horel, S. (2008). Neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation and minority composition are associated with better potential spatial access to the ground-truthed food environment in a large rural area. The Journal of Nutrition, 138(3), 620–627.

  36. 36.

    Paquet, C., Daniel, M., Kestens, Y., Leger, K., & Gauvin, L. (2008). Field validation of listings of food stores and commercial physical activity establishments from secondary data. The International Journal of Behavioral Nutrition and Physical Activity, 5, 58. doi:10.1186/1479-5868-5-58.

  37. 37.

    Liese, A. D., Colabianchi, N., Lamichhane, A. P., et al. (2010). Validation of 3 food outlet databases: Completeness and geospatial accuracy in rural and urban food environments. American Journal of Epidemiology, 172(11), 1324–1333. doi:10.1093/aje/kwq292.

  38. 38.

    Lake, A. A., Burgoine, T., Greenhalgh, F., Stamp, E., & Tyrrell, R. (2010). The foodscape: classification and field validation of secondary data sources. Health & Place, 16(4), 666–673. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.02.004.

  39. 39.

    Kersten, E., Laraia, B., Kelly, M., Adler, N., & Yen, I. H. (2012). Small food stores and availability of nutritious foods: A comparison of database and in-store measures, Northern California, 2009. Preventing Chronic Disease, 9, E127.

  40. 40.

    Charreire, H., Casey, R., Salze, P., et al. (2010). Measuring the food environment using geographical information systems: A methodological review. Public Health Nutrients, 13(11), 1773–1785. doi:10.1017/s1368980010000753.

  41. 41.

    Sanchez, B. N., Sanchez-Vaznaugh, E. V., Uscilka, A., Baek, J., & Zhang, L. (2012). Differential associations between the food environment near schools and childhood overweight across race/ethnicity, gender, and grade. American Journal of Epidemiology, 175(12), 1284–1293. doi:10.1093/aje/kwr454.

  42. 42.

    Ahern, M., Brown, C., & Dukas, S. (2011). A national study of the association between food environments and county-level health outcomes. The Journal of Rural Health: Official Journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association., 27(4), 367–379. doi:10.1111/j.1748-0361.2011.00378.x.

  43. 43.

    Morland, K. B., & Evenson, K. R. (2009). Obesity prevalence and the local food environment. Health Place, 15(2), 491–495. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2008.09.004.

  44. 44.

    Cohen, D. A. (2005). Obesity and the built environment: Changes in environmental cues cause energy imbalances. International Journal of Obesity, 2008(32 Suppl 7), S137–S142. doi:10.1038/ijo.2008.250.

  45. 45.

    Walker, R. E., Keane, C. R., & Burke, J. G. (2010). Disparities and access to healthy food in the United States: A review of food deserts literature. Health & Place, 16(5), 876–884. doi:10.1016/j.healthplace.2010.04.013.

  46. 46.

    Larson, N. I., Story, M. T., & Nelson, M. C. (2009). Neighborhood environments: Disparities in access to healthy foods in the U.S. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 36(1), 74–81. doi:10.1016/j.amepre.2008.09.025.

  47. 47.

    Lovasi, G. S., Hutson, M. A., Guerra, M., & Neckerman, K. M. (2009). Built environments and obesity in disadvantaged populations. Epidemiologic Reviews, 31, 7–20. doi:10.1093/epirev/mxp005.

  48. 48.

    Gustafson, A., Hankins, S., & Jilcott, S. (2012). Measures of the consumer food store environment: A systematic review of the evidence 2000–2011. Journal of Community Health, 37(4), 897–911. doi:10.1007/s10900-011-9524-x.

Download references

Acknowledgments

This research was supported by Cooperative Agreement Number 1-U48-DP001908 from the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Prevention Research Centers Program.

Author information

Correspondence to Ryan J. Gamba.

Additional information

The findings and conclusions in this review are those of the authors and do not necessarily represent the official position of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Appendices

Appendix 1: Studies Included in the Review, Identification #s

  1. 1.

    Sanchez BN, Sanchez-Vaznaugh EV, Uscilka A, Baek J, Zhang L. Differential associations between the food environment near schools and childhood overweight across race/ethnicity, gender, and grade. American journal of epidemiology. 2012; 175:1284–93.

  2. 2.

    Salois MJ. Obesity and diabetes, the built environment, and the ‘local’ food economy in the United States, 2007. Economics and human biology. 2012; 10:35–42.

  3. 3.

    Lee H. The role of local food availability in explaining obesity risk among young school-aged children. Social science & medicine (1982). 2012; 74:1193–203.

  4. 4.

    Hutchinson PL, Nicholas Bodor J, Swalm CM, Rice JC, Rose D. Neighbourhood food environments and obesity in southeast Louisiana. Health & place. 2012; 18:854–60.

  5. 5.

    Dunn RA, Sharkey JR, Horel S. The effect of fast-food availability on fast-food consumption and obesity among rural residents: an analysis by race/ethnicity. Economics and human biology. 2012; 10:1–13.

  6. 6.

    An R, Sturm R. School and residential neighborhood food environment and diet among California youth. Am J Prev Med. 2012; 42:129–35.

  7. 7.

    Leung CW, Laraia BA, Kelly M, Nickleach D, Adler NE, Kushi LH, et al. The influence of neighborhood food stores on change in young girls’ body mass index. Am J Prev Med. 2011; 41:43–51.

  8. 8.

    Jilcott SB, Wade S, McGuirt JT, Wu Q, Lazorick S, Moore JB. The association between the food environment and weight status among eastern North Carolina youth. Public health nutrition. 2011; 14:1610–7.

  9. 9.

    Jilcott SB, Keyserling T, Crawford T, McGuirt JT, Ammerman AS. Examining associations among obesity and per capita farmers’ markets, grocery stores/supermarkets, and supercenters in US counties. Journal of the American Dietetic Association. 2011; 111:567–72.

  10. 10.

    Howard PH, Fitzpatrick M, Fulfrost B. Proximity of food retailers to schools and rates of overweight ninth grade students: an ecological study in California. BMC public health. 2011; 11:68.

  11. 11.

    Gregson J. Poverty, sprawl, and restaurant types influence body mass index of residents in California counties. Public health reports (Washington, DC: 1974). 2011; 126 Suppl 1:141–9.

  12. 12.

    Gibson DM. The neighborhood food environment and adult weight status: estimates from longitudinal data. American journal of public health. 2011; 101:71–8.

  13. 13.

    Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Neighborhood deprivation, supermarket availability, and BMI in low-income women: a multilevel analysis. Journal of community health. 2011; 36:785–96.

  14. 14.

    Cerin E, Frank LD, Sallis JF, Saelens BE, Conway TL, Chapman JE, et al. From neighborhood design and food options to residents’ weight status. Appetite. 2011; 56:693–703.

  15. 15.

    Block JP, Christakis NA, O’Malley AJ, Subramanian SV. Proximity to food establishments and body mass index in the Framingham Heart Study offspring cohort over 30 years. American journal of epidemiology. 2011; 174:1108–14.

  16. 16.

    Ahern M, Brown C, Dukas S. A national study of the association between food environments and county-level health outcomes. The Journal of rural health: official journal of the American Rural Health Association and the National Rural Health Care Association. 2011; 27:367–79.

  17. 17.

    Truong K, Fernandes M, An R, Shier V, Sturm R. Measuring the physical food environment and its relationship with obesity: evidence from California. Public health. 2010; 124:115–8.

  18. 18.

    Michimi A, Wimberly MC. Associations of supermarket accessibility with obesity and fruit and vegetable consumption in the conterminous United States. International journal of health geographics. 2010; 9:49.

  19. 19.

    Mellor JM, Dolan CB, Rapoport RB. Child body mass index, obesity, and proximity to fast food restaurants. International journal of pediatric obesity: IJPO: an official journal of the International Association for the Study of Obesity. 2010.

  20. 20.

    Laska MN, Hearst MO, Forsyth A, Pasch KE, Lytle L. Neighbourhood food environments: are they associated with adolescent dietary intake, food purchases and weight status? Public health nutrition. 2010; 13:1757–63.

  21. 21.

    Janevic T, Borrell LN, Savitz DA, Herring AH, Rundle A. Neighbourhood food environment and gestational diabetes in New York City. Paediatric and perinatal epidemiology. 2010; 24:249–54.

  22. 22.

    Ford PB, Dzewaltowski DA. Limited supermarket availability is not associated with obesity risk among participants in the Kansas WIC Program. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2010; 18:1944–51.

  23. 23.

    Chen S, Florax RJ, Snyder S, Miller CC. Obesity and access to chain grocers. Economic geography. 2010; 86:431–52.

  24. 24.

    Bodor JN, Rice JC, Farley TA, Swalm CM, Rose D. The association between obesity and urban food environments. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2010; 87:771–81.

  25. 25.

    Black JL, Macinko J, Dixon LB, Fryer GE, Jr. Neighborhoods and obesity in New York City. Health & place. 2010; 16:489–99.

  26. 26.

    Zick CD, Smith KR, Fan JX, Brown BB, Yamada I, Kowaleski-Jones L. Running to the store? The relationship between neighborhood environments and the risk of obesity. Social science & medicine (1982). 2009; 69:1493–500.

  27. 27.

    Rundle A, Neckerman KM, Freeman L, Lovasi GS, Purciel M, Quinn J, et al. Neighborhood food environment and walkability predict obesity in New York City. Environmental health perspectives. 2009; 117:442–7.

  28. 28.

    Powell LM, Bao Y. Food prices, access to food outlets and child weight. Economics and human biology. 2009; 7:64–72.

  29. 29.

    Oreskovic NM, Winickoff JP, Kuhlthau KA, Romm D, Perrin JM. Obesity and the built environment among Massachusetts children. Clinical pediatrics. 2009; 48:904–12.

  30. 30.

    Oreskovic NM, Kuhlthau KA, Romm D, Perrin JM. Built environment and weight disparities among children in high- and low-income towns. Academic pediatrics. 2009; 9:315–21.

  31. 31.

    Morland KB, Evenson KR. Obesity prevalence and the local food environment. Health & place. 2009; 15:491–5.

  32. 32.

    Li F, Harmer P, Cardinal BJ, Bosworth M, Johnson-Shelton D, Moore JM, et al. Built environment and 1-year change in weight and waist circumference in middle-aged and older adults: Portland Neighborhood Environment and Health Study. American journal of epidemiology. 2009; 169:401–8.

  33. 33.

    Li F, Harmer P, Cardinal BJ, Bosworth M, Johnson-Shelton D. Obesity and the built environment: does the density of neighborhood fast-food outlets matter? American journal of health promotion: AJHP. 2009; 23:203–9.

  34. 34.

    Inagami S, Cohen DA, Brown AF, Asch SM. Body mass index, neighborhood fast food and restaurant concentration, and car ownership. Journal of urban health: bulletin of the New York Academy of Medicine. 2009; 86:683–95.

  35. 35.

    Galvez MP, Hong L, Choi E, Liao L, Godbold J, Brenner B. Childhood obesity and neighborhood food-store availability in an inner-city community. Academic pediatrics. 2009; 9:339–43.

  36. 36.

    Davis B, Carpenter C. Proximity of fast-food restaurants to schools and adolescent obesity. American journal of public health. 2009; 99:505–10.

  37. 37.

    Currie J DS, Moretti E, et al. Do fast food restaurants contribute to obesity? National Bureau of Economic Research bulletin on aging and health. 2009:2–3.

  38. 38.

    Mehta NK, Chang VW. Weight status and restaurant availability a multilevel analysis. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 34:127–33.

  39. 39.

    Li F, Harmer PA, Cardinal BJ, Bosworth M, Acock A, Johnson-Shelton D, et al. Built environment, adiposity, and physical activity in adults aged 50–75. Am J Prev Med. 2008; 35:38–46.

  40. 40.

    Grafova IB. Overweight children: assessing the contribution of the built environment. Preventive medicine. 2008; 47:304–8.

  41. 41.

    Brown AF, Vargas RB, Ang A, Pebley AR. The neighborhood food resource environment and the health of residents with chronic conditions: the food resource environment and the health of residents. Journal of general internal medicine. 2008; 23:1137–44.

  42. 42.

    Wang MC, Kim S, Gonzalez AA, MacLeod KE, Winkleby MA. Socioeconomic and food-related physical characteristics of the neighbourhood environment are associated with body mass index. Journal of epidemiology and community health. 2007; 61:491–8.

  43. 43.

    Powell LM, Auld MC, Chaloupka FJ, O’Malley PM, Johnston LD. Associations between access to food stores and adolescent body mass index. Am J Prev Med. 2007; 33:S301–7.

  44. 44.

    Lopez RP. Neighborhood risk factors for obesity. Obesity (Silver Spring, Md). 2007; 15:2111–9.

  45. 45.

    Liu GC, Wilson JS, Qi R, Ying J. Green neighborhoods, food retail and childhood overweight: differences by population density. American journal of health promotion: AJHP. 2007; 21:317–25.

  46. 46.

    Morland K, Diez Roux AV, Wing S. Supermarkets, other food stores, and obesity: the atherosclerosis risk in communities study. Am J Prev Med. 2006; 30:333–9.

  47. 47.

    Jeffery RW, Baxter J, McGuire M, Linde J. Are fast food restaurants an environmental risk factor for obesity? The international journal of behavioral nutrition and physical activity. 2006; 3:2.

  48. 48.

    Sturm R, Datar A. Body mass index in elementary school children, metropolitan area food prices and food outlet density. Public health. 2005; 119:1059–68.

  49. 49.

    Maddock J. The relationship between obesity and the prevalence of fast food restaurants: state-level analysis. American journal of health promotion: AJHP. 2004; 19:137–43.

  50. 50.

    Chou SY, Grossman M, Saffer H. An economic analysis of adult obesity: results from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System. Journal of health economics. 2004; 23:565–87.

  51. 51.

    Burdette HL, Whitaker RC. Neighborhood playgrounds, fast food restaurants, and crime: relationships to overweight in low-income preschool children. Preventive medicine. 2004; 38:57–63.

Appendix 2: Food Store Descriptions

1. Beverage and snack foods
2. Chain grocer
3. Chain restaurant
4. Convenience store
5. Direct farm sales
6. Drug store
7. Emergency food providers
8. Ethnic food store
9. Ethnic supermarket
10. Farmer’s market
11. Fast food restaurant
12. Food retail of any type
13. Full-service restaurant
14. Grocery store
15. Healthy BMI store
16. Healthy food places
17. Healthy grocery store
18. Independent restaurant
19. Independently owned grocery store
20. Independent supermarket
21. Intermediate BMI store
22. Limited service restaurant
23. Non fast food restaurant
24. Restaurant total
25. Sit down restaurant
26. Small food store/grocery store
27. Specialty store
28. Supercenter
29. Supermarket
30. Supermarkets and produce vendors
31. Unhealthy BMI store
32. Unhealthy food places

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Gamba, R.J., Schuchter, J., Rutt, C. et al. Measuring the Food Environment and its Effects on Obesity in the United States: A Systematic Review of Methods and Results. J Community Health 40, 464–475 (2015). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10900-014-9958-z

Download citation

Keywords

  • Food environment
  • Food access
  • Community nutrition environment
  • Obesity
  • Metrics