Journal of Community Health

, Volume 39, Issue 5, pp 987–989 | Cite as

Iodine Nutritional Status Among Neonates in the Solan District, Himachal Pradesh, India

  • Umesh Kapil
  • Madhulika Kabra
  • Shyam Prakash
  • Neha Sareen
  • Preetika Khenduja
Original Paper
  • 92 Downloads

Abstract

Iodine nutrition status amongst neonates can be assessed by estimating thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH). According to WHO, if more than 3 % of the neonates have TSH levels of 5 mlU/l and more in a population, it indicates presence of iodine deficiency (ID). Iodine deficiency is an endemic health problem in Solan district, Himachal Pradesh (HP) state. ID leads to mental retardation, deaf mutism, squint, dwarfism, spastic diplegia, neurological defects and congenital anomalies. The aim is to determine iodine nutrition status of neonates of Solan district. In Solan district, six hospitals/community health centers providing obstetric services and conducting more than 100 deliveries per annum were identified and enlisted. Two hospitals were selected keeping in view of operational feasibility. A total of 683 umbilical cord blood samples of neonates were collected on filter paper and analyzed for TSH. It was found that 63.2 % of the neonates had TSH levels of more than 5 mlU/l indicating iodine deficiency in the Solan district. Iodine deficiency was a public health problem in Solan district, HP.

Keywords

Iodine Nutrition Thyroid stimulating hormone Neonates 

References

  1. 1.
    Rah, J. H., Anas, A. M., Chakrabarty, A., Sankar, R., Pandav, C., & Aguayo, V. M. (2013). IDD control in India: Triumphs and challenges. Maternal Child Nutrition, http://www.thyroid.org/wpcontent/uploads/professionals/education/IDD_NL_Aug13.pdf.
  2. 2.
    Skordis, N., Toumba, M., Savva, S. C., Erakleous, E., Topouzi, M., Vogazianos, M., et al. (2005). High prevalence of congenital hypothyroidism in the Greek Cypriot population: Results of the neonatal screening program 1990–2000. Journal of Pediatric Endocrinology and Metabolism, 18, 453–461.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    WHO. (2007). Assessment of iodine deficiency disorders and monitoring their elimination: A guide for programme managers. Geneva: WHO/UNICEF/ICCIDD, World Health Organization.Google Scholar
  4. 4.
    Sohal, K. S., Sharma, T. D., Kapil, U., & Tandon, M. (1999). Current status of prevalence of goiter and iodine content of salt consumed in district Solan, Himachal Pradesh. Indian Pediatrics, 36, 1253–1255.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Kapil, U., Pandey, R. M., Jain, V., Kabra, M., Sareen, N., Bhadoria, A. S., et al. (2013). Increase in iodine deficiency disorder due to inadequate sustainability of supply of iodized salt in District Solan, Himachal Pradesh. Journal of Tropical Pediatrics, 59(6), 514–515.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    Slazyk, W. E., & Hannon, W. H. (1993). Laboratory methods for neonatal screening. In B. L. Therrell (Ed.), Quality assurance in the newborn screening laboratory. Washington, DC: American Public Health Association.Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    Westgard, J. O., & Klee, G. G. (1999). Tietz textbook of clinical chemistry. In C. A. Burtis & R. Ashwood (Eds.), Quality management (3rd ed., pp. 384–388). Philadelphia, PA: W.B. Saunders Co.Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    Chakraborty, I., Chatterjee, S., Bhadra, D., Mukhopadhyaya, B. B., Dasgupta, A., & Purkait, B. (2006). Iodine deficiency disorders among the pregnant women in a rural hospital of West Bengal. Indian Journal of Medical Research, 123, 825–829.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Li, M., & Eastman, C. J. (2010). Neonatal TSH Screening: Is it a sensitive and reliable tool for monitoring iodine status in populations. Best Practice and Research Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism, 24, 63–75.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. 10.
    Kýslal, F., Cetinkaya, S., Dilmen, U., Yasar, H., & Tezic, T. (2010). Cord blood thyroid stimulating hormone (TSH) and free T4 (fT4) levels in Turkish neonates: Is iodine deficiency still a continuing problem? Pediatrics International, 5, 762–768.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Manglik, A. K., Chatterjee, N., & Ghosh, G. (2005). Umbical cord blood TSH levels in term neonates: A screening tool for congenital hypothyroidism. Indian Pediatrics, 42, 1029–1032.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Ehrenkranz, J., Fualal, J., Ndizihiwe, A., Clarke, I., & Alder, S. (2011). Neonatal age and point of care TSH testing in the monitoring of iodine deficiency disorders: Findings from western Uganda. Thyroid, 21, 183–188.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    Mikelsaar, R. V., & Viikmaa, M. (1999). Neonatal thyroid stimulating hormone screening as an indirect method for the assessment of iodine deficiency in Estonia. Hormone Research, 52, 284–286.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. 14.
    Costante, G., Grasso, L., Ludovico, O., Marasco, M. F., Nocera, M., Schifino, E., et al. (1997). The statistical analysis of neonatal TSH results from congenital hypothyroidism screening programs provides a useful tool for the characterization of moderate iodine deficiency regions. Journal of Endocrinology Investigation, 20, 251–256.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. 15.
    Jaruratanasirikul, S., Sangsupawanich, P., Koranantakul, O., et al. (2009). Maternal iodine status and neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone concentration: A community survey in Songkhla, southern Thailand. Public Health Nutrition, 12, 2279–2284.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. 16.
    Rahman, A., Savige, G. S., Deacon, N. J., Francis, I., & Chesters, J. E. (2010). Increased iodine deficiency in Victoria, Australia: Analysis of neonatal thyroid-stimulating hormone data, 2001–2006. Medical Journal of Australia, 193, 503–505.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  17. 17.
    Peris Roig, B., Calvo Rigual, F., Tenias Burillo, J. M., Merchante Alfaro, A., Presencia Rubio, G., & Miralles, D. F. (2009). Iodine deficiency and pregnancy current situation. Endocrinology Nutrition, 56, 9–12.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. 18.
    Ołtarzewski, M., & Szymborski, J. (2003). Neonatal hypothyroid screening in monitoring of iodine deficiency and iodine supplementation in Poland. Journal of Endocrinology Investigation, 26, 27–31.Google Scholar
  19. 19.
    Najafi, M., Khodaee, G. H., Bahari, M., Sabahi, M., Farsi, M. M., & Kiani, F. (2008). Neonatal thyroid screening in a mild iodine deficiency endemic area in Iran. Indian Journal of Medical Science, 62, 113–116.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Umesh Kapil
    • 1
  • Madhulika Kabra
    • 2
  • Shyam Prakash
    • 3
  • Neha Sareen
    • 1
  • Preetika Khenduja
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Human NutritionAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  2. 2.Department of PediatricsAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia
  3. 3.Department of Gastroenterology and Human NutritionAll India Institute of Medical SciencesNew DelhiIndia

Personalised recommendations