Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 35, Issue 4, pp 1177–1191 | Cite as

Job Insecurity, Occupational Future Time Perspective, and Psychological Distress Among Casino Employees

  • Cindia Ching-Chi Lam
  • Francis CheungEmail author
  • Anise M. S. Wu
Original Paper


The primary goal of this study was to examine job insecurity as a work stressor predicting psychological distress (i.e. depression, anxiety, and stress) among casino employees in Macao, China. The study was also the first one to test whether occupational future time perspective mediated the above relations. We recruited 1014 participants, who voluntarily took part in an anonymous survey in October 2016. Results suggested that job insecurity was positively related to psychological distress (i.e. depression, anxiety and stress). In line with our hypothesis, we also found that occupational future time perspective significantly mediated the association between job insecurity and psychological distress. The findings suggest that, in psychological health promotion campaigns among casino employees, job insecurity is a key factor to be addressed via organizational policies and activities.


Job insecurity Occupational future time perspective Psychological distress 



This research was funded by the Faculty Research Grant at Lingnan University (Funding Code: SSFRG/15/1/2), awarded to Francis Cheung.

Compliance with Ethical standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC, part of Springer Nature 2019

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Institute for Tourism StudiesMacaoChina
  2. 2.Department of Applied PsychologyLingnan UniversityHong KongChina
  3. 3.Department of PsychologyUniversity of MacauMacaoChina

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