Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 33, Issue 4, pp 1039–1050 | Cite as

Anxiety, Depression and Emotion Regulation Among Regular Online Poker Players

  • Servane Barrault
  • Céline Bonnaire
  • Florian Herrmann
Original Paper

Abstract

Poker is a type of gambling that has specific features, including the need to regulate one’s emotion to be successful. The aim of the present study is to assess emotion regulation, anxiety and depression in a sample of regular poker players, and to compare the results of problem and non-problem gamblers. 416 regular online poker players completed online questionnaires including sociodemographic data, measures of problem gambling (CPGI), anxiety and depression (HAD scale), and emotion regulation (ERQ). The CPGI was used to divide participants into four groups according to the intensity of their gambling practice (non-problem, low risk, moderate risk and problem gamblers). Anxiety and depression were significantly higher among severe-problem gamblers than among the other groups. Both significantly predicted problem gambling. On the other hand, there was no difference between groups in emotion regulation (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression), which was linked neither to problem gambling nor to anxiety and depression (except for cognitive reappraisal, which was significantly correlated to anxiety). Our results underline the links between anxiety, depression and problem gambling among poker players. If emotion regulation is involved in problem gambling among poker players, as strongly suggested by data from the literature, the emotion regulation strategies we assessed (cognitive reappraisal and expressive suppression) may not be those involved. Further studies are thus needed to investigate the involvement of other emotion regulation strategies.

Keywords

Problem gambling Poker Emotion regulation Depression Anxiety 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The authors thank Elisabeth Yates for her language review and editing.

Compliance with Ethical Standards

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest. All ethics standards were respected (anonymity, informed consent etc.).

Research Involving Human Participants and/or Animals

The ethics committee of the University of Paris Descartes (CERES) approved the study.

Ethical Approval

All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards. This study was approved by the ethics committee of the University of Paris Descartes (CERES).

References

  1. Barrault, S., Untas, A., & Varescon, I. (2014). Special features of poker. International Gambling Studies, 14(3), 492–504.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Barrault, S., & Varescon, I. (2013). Cognitive distortions, anxiety and depression among regular and pathological gambling online poker players. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 16(3), 183–190.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Barrault, S., & Varescon, I. (2016). Online and live regular poker players: Do they differ in impulsive sensation seeking and gambling practice? Journal of Behavioral Addictions, 5(1), 41–50.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  4. Bjerg, O. (2010). Problem gambling in poker: Money, rationality and control in a skill-based social game. International Gambling Studies, 10(3), 239–254.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Bogliacino, F., Codagnone, C., Veltri, G. A., Chakravarti, A., Ortoleva, P., Gaskell, G., et al. (2015). Pathos & ethos: emotions and willingness to pay for tobacco products. PLoS ONE, 10(10), e0139542. doi: 10.1371/journal.pone.0139542.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnaire, C., Bungener, C., & Varescon, I. (2009). Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: Comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(4), 455–471.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonn-Miller, M., Vujanovic, A., & Zvolensky, M. (2008). Emotional dysregulation: Association with coping-oriented marijuana use motives among current marijuana users. Substance Use and Misuse, 43, 1653–1665.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  8. Browne, B. (1989). Going on tilt: Frequent poker players and control. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 5, 3–21.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Christophe, V., Antoine, P., Leroy, T., & Delelis, G. (2009). Évaluation de deux stratégies de régulation émotionnelle: La suppression expressive et la réévaluation cognitive. Revue Européenne de Psychologie Appliquée/European Review of Applied Psychology, 59(1), 59–67.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Codagnone, C., Bogliacino, F., Ivchenko, A., Veltri, G. & Gaskell, G. (2014). Study on online gambling and adequate measures for the protection of consumers of gambling services: Final report. European Commission, The Consumer Health and Food Executive Agency (CHAFEA), http://ec.europa.eu/DocsRoom/documents/9785/attachments/1/translations/en/renditions/native).
  11. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H.J. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Report to the Report to the Canadian Inter-Provincial Advisory Committee. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  12. Friedman, S., Samuelian, J. C., Lancrenon, S., Even, C., & Chiarelli, P. (2001). Three-dimensional structure of the hospital anxiety and depression scale in a large French primary care population suffering from major depression. Psychiatry Research, 104(3), 247–257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  13. Gratz, K., & Roemer, L. (2004). Multidimensional assessment of emotion regulation and dysregulation: Development, factor structure, and initial validation of the difficulties in emotion regulation scale. Journal of Psychopathology and Behavioral Assessment, 26(1), 41–54.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Griffiths, M., & Barnes, A. (2008). Internet gambling: An online empirical study among student gamblers. International Journal of mental Health and Addiction, 6, 194–204.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  15. Gross, J. J., & John, O. P. (2003). Individual differences in two emotion regulation processes: Implications for affect, relationships, and well-being. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 85, 348–362.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Gross, J. J., & Muñoz, R. F. (1995). Emotion regulation and mental health. Clinical psychology: Science and practice, 2(2), 151–164.Google Scholar
  17. Gross, J. J., Richards, J. M., & John, O. P. (2006). Emotion regulation in everyday life. Emotion regulation in couples and families: Pathways to dysfunction and health, 2006, 13–35.Google Scholar
  18. Heerwegh, D. (2009). Mode differences between face-to-face and web surveys: An experimental investigation of data quality and social desirability effects. International Journal of Public Opinion Research, 21(1), 111–121.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Hopley, A., & Nicki, R. (2010). Predictive factors of excessive online poker playing. Cyberpsychology, Behavior and Social Networking, 13(4), 379–385.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Hormes, J. M., Kearns, B., & Timko, C. A. (2014). Craving facebook? Behavioral addiction to online social networking and its association with emotion regulation deficits. Addiction, 109(12), 2079–2088.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  21. Johansson, A., Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., Odlaug, B. L., & Götestam, K. G. (2009). Risk factors for problematic gambling: A critical literature review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25(1), 67–92.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. John, O., & Gross, J. (2004). Healthy and unhealthy emotion regulation: Personality processes, individual differences, and life span development. Journal of Personality, 72, 1301–1333.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  23. Laakasuo, M., Palomäki, J., & Salmela, M. (2014). Experienced poker players are emotionally stable. CyberPsychology, Behavior and social Networking, 17(10), 668–671.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  24. Lepine, J. P., Godchau, M., Brun, P., & Lemperiere, T. (1985). Evaluation of anxiety and depression among patients hospitalized on an internal medicine service. Annales médico-psychologiques (Vol. 143, No. 2, p. 175).Google Scholar
  25. Pace, U., Zappula, C., Di Maggio, R., Passanisi, A., & Craparo, G. (2015). Characteristics of regular gamblers in Italy: The role of control and emotion regulation. Clinical Neuropsychiatry: Journal of Treatment Evaluation, 12(5), 11–117.Google Scholar
  26. Palomäki, J., Laakasuo, M., & Salmela, M. (2013). This is just so unfair! : A qualitative analysis of loss-induced emotions and tilting in on-line poker. International Gambling Studies, 13, 255–270. doi: 10.1080/14459795.2013.780631.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Petry, N., Stinson, F., & Grant, B. (2005). Comorbidity of DSM-IV pathological gambling and other psychiatric disorders: Results from the National Epidemiologic Survey on Alcohol and related conditions. The Journal of Clinical Psychology, 66(5), 564–574.Google Scholar
  28. Quigley, L., Yakovenko, I., Hodgins, D. C., Dobson, K. S., El-Guebaly, N., Casey, D. M., et al. (2015). Comorbid problem gambling and major depression in a community sample. Journal of Gambling Studies, 31(4), 1135–1152.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  29. Ricketts, T., & Macaskill, A. (2003). Gambling as emotion management: Developing a grounded theory of problem gambling. Addiction Research & Theory, 11(6), 383–400.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Shead, W., & Hodgins, D. (2009). Affect-regulation expectancies among gamblers. Journal of Gambling Studies, 25, 357–375.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Weatherly, J. N., & Cookman, M. L. (2014). Investigating several factors potentially related to endorsing gambling as an escape. Current Psychology: A Journal of Diverse Perspectives on Diverse Psychological Issues, 33(3), 422–433.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Williams, A., Grisham, J., Erskine, A., & Cassedy, E. (2012). Deficits in emotion regulation associated with pathological gambling. British Journal of Clinical Psychology, 51, 223–238.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Wood, R. T. A., & Griffiths, M. D. (2007). A qualitative investigation of problem gambling as an escape-based coping strategy. Psychology and Psychotherapy: Theory, Research and Practice, 80, 107–125.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Young, M., & Wohl, M. (2011). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: An evaluation of the scale and its accompanying profiler software in a clinical setting. Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 467–485.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Zigmond, A. S., & Snaith, R. P. (1983). The hospital anxiety and depression scale. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica, 67(6), 361–370.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Psychology Department, EA2114, Laboratory of Ages of Life Psychology and Adaptation, PRES Centre-Val de Loire UniversityUniversity François Rabelais of ToursTours CedexFrance
  2. 2.CHRU of Tours, CSAPA 37 (Centre de Soins d’Accompagnement et de Prévention en Addictologie)Tours CedexFrance
  3. 3.Laboratory of Psychopathology and Health ProcessesParis Descartes UniversityBoulogne-Billancourt CedexFrance

Personalised recommendations