Systematic Review of Empirically Evaluated School-Based Gambling Education Programs
- 647 Downloads
Adolescent problem gambling prevalence rates are reportedly five times higher than in the adult population. Several school-based gambling education programs have been developed in an attempt to reduce problem gambling among adolescents; however few have been empirically evaluated. The aim of this review was to report the outcome of studies empirically evaluating gambling education programs across international jurisdictions. A systematic review following guidelines outlined in the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) Statement searching five academic databases: PubMed, Scopus, Medline, PsycINFO, and ERIC, was conducted. A total of 20 papers and 19 studies were included after screening and exclusion criteria were applied. All studies reported intervention effects on cognitive outcomes such as knowledge, perceptions, and beliefs. Only nine of the studies attempted to measure intervention effects on behavioural outcomes, and only five of those reported significant changes in gambling behaviour. Of these five, methodological inadequacies were commonly found including brief follow-up periods, lack of control comparison in post hoc analyses, and inconsistencies and misclassifications in the measurement of gambling behaviour, including problem gambling. Based on this review, recommendations are offered for the future development and evaluation of school-based gambling education programs relating to both methodological and content design and delivery considerations.
KeywordsGambling Adolescent Youth School Prevention Education
The authors would also like to thank Melanie Hartmann and Lanhowe Chen for their assistance with inter-rater reliability checks for inclusion of studies and quality assessment measures, respectively.
The authors would like to acknowledge DOOLEYS Lidcombe for their financial support to conduct a preliminary scoping report on gambling education programs for adolescents.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
Conflict of interest
The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.
- Canale, N., Vieno, A., Griffiths, M. D., Marino, C., Chieco, F., Disperati, F., et al. (2016). The efficacy of a web-based gambling intervention program for high school students: A preliminary randomized study. Computers in Human Behavior, 55, 946–954. doi: 10.1016/j.chb.2015.10.012.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Davis, R. M. (2003). Prevention of problem gambling: A school-based intervention (M.Sc.). University of Calgary, Canada. Retrieved from http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/docview/305339641/abstract/1ADA6FA2BAB34CD8PQ/1.
- Delfabbro, P., Winefield, A. H., & Anderson, S. (2009b). Once a gambler—always a gambler? A longitudinal analysis of gambling patterns in young people making the transition from adolescence to adulthood. International Gambling Studies, 9(2), 151–163. doi: 10.1080/14459790902755001.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Ferland, F., Ladouceur, R., & Vitaro, F. (2002). Prevention of problem gambling: Modifying misconceptions and increasing knowledge. Journal of gambling studies, 18(1), 19–29. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/A:1014528128578.
- International Centre for Youth Gambling Problems and High-Risk Behaviours. (2004). The amazing chateau [CD-ROM]. Montreal, Quebec: McGill University.Google Scholar
- Jiménez-Murcia, S., Álvarez-Moya, E. M., Stinchfield, R., Fernández-Aranda, F., Granero, R., Aymamí, N., et al. (2010). Age of onset in pathological gambling: Clinical, therapeutic and personality correlates. Journal of Gambling Studies, 26(2), 235–248. doi: 10.1007/s10899-009-9175-3.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Ladouceur, R., Ferland, F., & Vitaro, F. (2004). Prevention of problem gambling: Modifying misconceptions and increasing knowledge among Canadian youths. Journal of Primary Prevention, 25(3), 329–335. http://link.springer.com/article/10.1023/B:JOPP.0000048024.37066.32. Accessed 7 January, 2016.
- Langham, E., Thorne, H., Browne, M., Donaldson, P., Rose, J., & Rockloff, M. (2016). Understanding gambling related harm: A proposed definition, conceptual framework, and taxonomy of harms. BMC Public Health, 16. http://search.proquest.com.ezproxy1.library.usyd.edu.au/docview/1774001169/abstract/5C01E93F73C440FEPQ/1.
- Lemaire, J., de Lima, S., & Patton, D. (2004). It’s your lucky day: Program evaluation (pp. 1–61). Addictions Foundation of Manitoba.Google Scholar
- Lupu, I. R., & Lupu, V. (2013). Gambling prevention program for teenagers. Journal of Cognitive and Behavioral Psychotherapies, 13(2a), 575–584.Google Scholar
- Moher, D., Liberati, A., Tetzlaff, J., Altman, D.G., & The PRISMA Group. (2009). Preferred reporting items for systematic reviews and meta-analyses: The PRISMA statement. PLoS Med 6(7): e1000097. http://doi.org/10.1371/journal.pmed1000097.
- National Collaborating Centre for Methods and Tools. (2008). Quality assessment tool for quantitative studies. Hamilton, ON: McMaster University. (Updated 13 April, 2010). http://www.nccmt.ca/resources/search/14.
- Neal, P., Delfabbro, P. H., & O’Neill, M. (2005). Problem gambling and harm: working towards a national definition. Melbourne, Australia: National Ministerial Council on Gambling, South Australian Centre for Economic Studies, & the Department of Psychology, University of Adelaide. https://www.adelaide.edu.au/saces/gambling/publications/ProblemGamblingAndHarmTowardNationalDefinition.pdf.
- Olason, D. T., Kristjansdottir, E., Einarsdottir, H., Haraldsson, H., Bjarnason, G., & Derevensky, J. L. (2011). Internet gambling and problem gambling among 13 to 18 year old adolescents in Iceland. International Journal of Mental Health and Addiction, 9(3), 257–263. doi: 10.1007/s11469-010-9280-7.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Purdie, N., Matters, G., Hillman, K., Ozolins, C., & Millwood, P. (2011). Gambling and young people in Australia. Report prepared for Gambling Research Australia. http://www.gamblingresearch.org.au/home/research/gra+research+reports/gambling+and+young+people+in+australia+%282011%29.
- Slutske, W. S. (2007). Longitudinal studies of gambling behaviour. In G. Smith, D. C. Hodgins, & R. J. Williams (Eds.), Research and measurement issues in gambling studies. Oxford: Academic Press: Elsevier.Google Scholar
- Stinchfield, R. (2010). A critical review of adolescent problem gambling assessment instruments. International Journal of Adolescent Medicine and Health, 22(1), 77–93. http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pubmed/20491419.
- Thomas, B. H., Ciliska, D., Dobbins, M., & Micucci, S. (2004). A process for systematically reviewing the literature: Providing the research evidence for public health nursing interventions. Worldviews on Evidence-Based Nursing, 1(3), 176–184. doi: 10.1111/j.1524-475X.2004.04006.x.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Turner, N., & Liu, E. (1999). The naive human concept of random events. Presented at the 1999 Conference of the American Psychological Association, Boston, MA.Google Scholar
- Williams, R. J. (2002). Prevention of problem gambling: A school-based intervention. Alberta: Canada: Alberta Gaming Research Institute. https://www.uleth.ca/dspace/handle/10133/370.
- Williams, R. J., Connolly, D., Wood, R., Currie, S., & Davis, M. (2004). Program findings that inform curriculum development for the prevention of problem gambling. Gambling Research: Journal of the National Association for Gambling Studies (Australia), 16(1), 47–69. https://www.uleth.ca/dspace/handle/10133/372.