Gambling, Risk-Taking, and Antisocial Behavior: A Replication Study Supporting the Generality of Deviance
- 642 Downloads
Research suggests that high frequency gambling is a component of the “generality of deviance”, which describes the observation that various forms of risky and antisocial behavior tend to co-occur among individuals. Furthermore, risky and antisocial behaviors have been associated with such personality traits as low self-control, and impulsivity, and sensation-seeking. We conducted a replication (and extension) of two previous studies examining whether high frequency gambling is part of the generality of deviance using a large and diverse community sample (n = 328). This study was conducted as a response to calls for more replication studies in the behavioral and psychological sciences (recent systematic efforts suggest that a significant proportion of psychology studies do not replicate). The results of the present study largely replicate those previously found, and in many cases, we observed stronger associations among measures of gambling, risk-taking, and antisocial behavior in this diverse sample. Together, this study provides evidence for the generality of deviance inclusive of gambling (and, some evidence for the replicability of research relating to gambling and individual differences).
KeywordsGambling Risk-taking Antisocial behavior Deviance Personality Attitudes Replication
This research was supported by a research grants and fellowships from the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre and the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council of Canada. The authors would like to thank Thomas Fox, Sara Kafashan, Lindsay Kleiner, Christine Mishra, and Alix Shriner for their help with data collection.
Compliance with Ethical Standards
All procedures performed in studies involving human participants were in accordance with the ethical standards of the institutional and/or national research committee and with the 1964 Helsinki declaration and its later amendments or comparable ethical standards.
- Blais, A., & Weber, E. U. (2006). A domain-specific risk-taking (DOSPERT) scale for adult populations. Judgment and Decision Making, 1, 33–47.Google Scholar
- Brase, G. L. (2009). How different types of participant payments alter task performance. Judgment and Decision Making, 4, 419–428.Google Scholar
- Bromiley, P., & Curley, S. P. (1992). Individual differences in risk-taking. In J. F. Yates (Ed.), Risk taking behaviour (pp. 87–132). Chichester: Wiley.Google Scholar
- Costa, P. T., & McRae, R. R. (1992). The revised NEO personality inventory (NEO-PI-R) and NEO five factor inventory (NEO-FFI) professional manual. Odessa, FL: Psychological Assessment Resources.Google Scholar
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final report (Submitted to the Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse). Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Gottfredson, M. R., & Hirschi, T. (1990). A general theory of crime. Stanford: Stanford University Press.Google Scholar
- Hirschi, T., & Gottfredson, M. R. (1994). The generality of deviance. In T. Hirschi & M. R. Gottfredson (Eds.), The generality of deviance. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
- Mishra, S., Barclay, P., & Sparks, A. (in press). The relative state model: Integrating need-based and ability-based pathways to risk-taking. Personality and Social Psychology Review. Google Scholar
- Smith, G., Wynne, H., & Hartnagel, T. (2003). Examining police records to assess gambling impacts: A study of gambling-related crime in the city of Edmonton. Edmonton, Canada: Alberta Gaming Research Institute.Google Scholar
- Stinchfield, R. (2004). Demographic, psychosocial, and behavioural factors associated with youth gambling and problem gambling. In J. L. Derevensky & R. Gupta (Eds.), Gambling problems in youth: Theoretical and applied perspectives. New York: Kluwer.Google Scholar
- Stinchfield, R., McCready, J., Turner, N. E., Jiminez-Murcia, S., Petry, N. M., Grant, J., et al. (in press). Reliability, validity, and classification accuracy of the DSM-5 diagnostic criteria for gambling disorder and comparison to DSM-IV. Journal of Gambling Studies.Google Scholar
- Toneatto, T., & Nguyen, L. (2007). Individual characteristics and problem gambling behavior. In G. Smith, D. C. Hodgins, & R. J. Williams (Eds.), Research and measurement Issues in gambling studies (pp. 279–303). Amsterdam: Elsevier. Google Scholar
- Turner, N. E., Preston, D. L., McAvoy, S., & Saunders, C. (2007). Problem gambling in Canadian federal offenders: Prevalence, comorbidity, and correlates (Submitted to the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre). Guelph, ON: Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre.Google Scholar
- Zuckerman, M. (1994). Behavioural expressions and biosocial bases of sensation-seeking. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar