Advertisement

Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 32, Issue 2, pp 757–771 | Cite as

Towards a Validation of the Three Pathways Model of Pathological Gambling

  • Marc Valleur
  • Irène Codina
  • Jean-Luc Vénisse
  • Lucia Romo
  • David Magalon
  • Mélina Fatséas
  • Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet
  • Mohamed-Ali Gorsane
  • Alice Guilleux
  • Groupe JEU
  • Marie Grall-Bronnec
  • Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
Original Paper

Abstract

With the aim of validating the three pathways hypothesis of pathological gambling (Blaszczynski and Nower in Addiction 97:487–499, 2002) 372 pathological gamblers meeting DSM IV (2000) criteria were assessed via a structured clinical interview as well as being subjected to personality tests and evaluation of their gambling practices. Our results show that it is possible to identify three subgroups corresponding to the three pathways: behaviourally conditioned problem gamblers, emotionally vulnerable problem gamblers and antisocial impulsivist problem gamblers. Our results particularly demonstrate that impulsivist gamblers preferentially choose semi-skilful gambling (horse racing and sports gambling) whereas emotionally vulnerable gamblers are significantly more attracted to games of chance (one-armed bandits, scratch cards, etc.) This led us to propose a functional presentation of the three pathways model which differs somewhat from the Blaszczynski and Nower presentation.

Keywords

Problem gambling Etiology Gambling subtypes Co morbidity Impulsivity Pathway model Addiction 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We wish to sincerely thank all the staff who contributed to this study (JEU group), for their valuable assistance and significant investment. A special thanks to those who collected the data. Members of the JEU Group are: Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Caroline Dubertret, Irène Codina, Marc Valleur, Marc Auriacombe, Mélina Fatséas, Jean-Marc Alexandre, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Christophe Lançon, David Magalon, Michel Reynaud and Mohamed-Ali Gorsane. We also wish to thank Aurélie Wellenstein from the Marmottan Hospital’s resource center for the bibliographic research. This study was supported by both the joint support of the French Inter-departmental Mission for the fight against drugs and drug addiction (MILDT) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), as part of the call for research projects launched by these two organizations in 2007, and a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC 2009–RCB 2008-A01188-47). There were no constraints on publishing. This research was conducted at the initiative of and coordinated by the Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders” of the University Hospital of Nantes, who is the sponsor of this study.

Conflict of interest

M.G.B., J.L.V. and G.C.B. declare that the University Hospital of Nantes has received funding from gambling industry (Française Des Jeux and Pari Mutuel Urbain) in the form of a sponsorship which supports the gambling section of the BALANCED Unit (the Reference Centre for Excessive Gambling). Scientific independence towards gambling industry operators is warranted. MV, IC, CL, DM, MF, ICB, MAG and AG declare that they have no conflicts of interest. There were no constraints on publishing.

References

  1. APA. (2000). DSM-IV-TR. Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed text revision ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association.Google Scholar
  2. Baylé, F. J., Krebs, M. O., Martin, C., Bouvard, M. P., & Wender, P. (2003). Version française de la Wender Utah Rating Scale (WURS). Revue Canadienne de Psychiatrie, 48(2), 132.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  3. Binde, P. (2013). Gambling in Sweden, the cultural and socio-political context. Addiction, 109, 193–198.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  4. Blaszczynski, A., McConaghy, N., & Frankova, A. (1990). Boredom proneness in pathological gambling. Psychological Reports, 67, 35–42.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  5. Blaszczynski, A., & Nower, L. (2002). A pathways model of problem and pathological gambling. Addiction, 97, 487–499.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Bonnaire, C. (2011). Towards an integrative treatment of pathological gamblers. Encephale, 37(6), 410–417.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  7. Bonnaire, C., Bungener, C., Varescon, I. (2009). Subtypes of French pathological gamblers: Comparison of sensation seeking, alexithymia and depression scores. Journal of Gambling Studies, 28, 455–471.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Bouju, G., Hardouin, J. B., Boutin, C., Gorwood, P., Le Bourvellec, J. D., Feuillet, F. (2014). A shorter and multidimensional version of the gambling attitudes and beliefs survey (GABS-23). Journal of Gambling Studies, 30(2), 349–367.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  9. Boutin, C. (2010). Gambling: Luck or strategy? Freely choosing the place of game in your life. Montréal: les éditions de l'homme.Google Scholar
  10. Breen, R. B., & Zuckerman, M. (1999). ‘Chasing’ in gambling behavior: Personality and cognitive determinants. Personality Individual Differences, 27, 1097–1111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Caillois, R. (1957) Les jeux et les hommes, Gallimard, (On Game and men).Google Scholar
  12. Chakroun-Vinciguerra, N., Faytout, M., Pèlissolo, A., & Swendsen, J. (2005). French validation of a short version of the temparament and character inventory (TCI-125). Journal de Thérapie Comportementale et Cognitive, 15(1), 27–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Challet-Bouju, G., Hardouin, J. B., Vénisse, J. L., Romo, L., Valleur, M., Magalon, D., et al. (2014). Study protocol: The JEU cohort study—transversal multiaxial evaluation and 5-year follow-up of a cohort of French gamblers. BMC Psychiatry, 14, 226.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  14. Cloninger, C. R. (1992). The temperament and character inventory-125 (TCI-125; Version 1).Google Scholar
  15. Cloninger, C. R., Svrakic, D. M., & Przybeck, T. R. (1993). A psychobiological model of temperament and character. Archives of General Psychiatry, 50(12), 975–990.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  16. Costes, J. M., Pousset, M., Eroukmanoff, V., Le Nezet, O., Richard, J. B., Guignard, R., Beck, F., Arwidson, P. (2011). [Rate and practices of gambling in 2010]. Tendances, p 77.Google Scholar
  17. Graham, J. R., & Lowenfeld, B. H. (1986). Personality dimensions of the pathological gambler. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 2, 58–66.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  18. Inserm. (2008). Jeux de hasard et d’argent. Inserm: Expertise collective.Google Scholar
  19. Jacobs, D. F. (1988). Evidence for a common dissociative like reaction among addicts. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 4, 27–37.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lecrubier, Y., Sheehan, D. V., Weiller, E., Amorim, P., Bonora, I., Sheehan, K. H., et al. (1997). The mini international neuropsychiatric interview (MINI). A short diagnostic structured interview: Reliability and validity according to the CIDI. European Psychiatry, 12, 224–231.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2006). Psychological experience of gambling and subtypes of pathological gamblers. Psychiatry Research, 144, 17–27.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  22. Ledgerwood, D. M., & Petry, N. M. (2010). Subtyping pathological gamblers based on impulsivity, depression, and anxiety. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 24(4), 680–688.CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
  23. Lejoyeux, M. (1999). Assesment scales of pathological gambling. Neuropsy, 14, 67–71.Google Scholar
  24. Lesieur, H. R. (2001). Cluster analysis of types of inpatient pathological gamblers. Dissertation Abstracts International, 62B, 2065.Google Scholar
  25. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks gambling screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144, 1184–1188.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  26. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1991). When lady luck loses: Women and compulsive gambling. In N. Van Den Bergh (Ed.), Feminist perspectives on addictions (pp. 181–197). New York: Springer Publishing Co.Google Scholar
  27. Martins, S. S., Ghandour, L. A., & Storr, C. L. (2011). Gambling behavior subtypes among respondents with gambling-related problems in a population-based sample. Journal of Addictive Diseases, 30(2), 169–180.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  28. McCormick, R. A. (1987). Pathological gambling: A parsimonious need state model. Journal of Gambling Behavior, 3, 257–263.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Milosevic, A., & Ledgerwood, D. M. (2010). The subtyping of pathological gambling: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 30(8), 988–998.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  30. Moran, E. (1970). Varieties of pathological gambling. The British Journal of Psychiatry, 116, 593–597.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  31. Nadeau, L., Valleur, M. (2014). [Pascasius or understanding addictions] (1561), Presses Universitaires de Montréal.Google Scholar
  32. Pélissolo, A., & Lèpine, J. (2000). Normative data and factor structure of the temperament and character inventory (TCI) in the French version. Psychiatry Research, 94, 67–76.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  33. Planzer, S., Gray, H. M., & Shaffer, H. J. (2014). Associations between national gambling policies and disordered gambling prevalence rates within Europe. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 37, 217–229.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  34. Potenza, M. N. (2006). Should addictive disorders include non-substance-related conditions? Addiction, 101(Suppl 1), 142–151.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  35. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behaviour in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92, 168–172.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  36. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioural model of problem gambling: A biopsychosocial perspective. Clinical Psychology Review, 22, 1–25.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  37. Sproston, K., Erens, B., & Orford, J. (2000). Gambling behaviour in Britain: Results from the gambling prevalence survey. London: National Center for Social Research.Google Scholar
  38. Steel, Z., & Blaszczynski, A. (1996). The factorial structure of pathological gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 3–20.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  39. Stewart, S. H., & Zack, M. (2008). Development and psychometric evaluation of a three-dimensional gambling motives questionnaire. Addiction, 103, 1110–1117.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  40. Toneatto, T., & Millar, G. (2004). Assessing and treating problem gambling: Empirical status and promising trends. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 49, 517–525.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  41. Turner, N. E., Jain, U., Spence, W., & Zangeneh, M. (2008). Pathways to pathological gambling: Component analysis of variables related to pathological gambling. International Gambling Studies, 8, 281–298.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Vachon, D. D., & Bagby, R. M. (2009). Pathological gambling subtypes. Psychological Assessment, 21, 608–615.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  43. Valleur, M., Bucher, C. (2006). [Pathological gambling] Armand Colin.Google Scholar
  44. Ward, M. F., Wender, P. H., & Reimherr, F. W. (1993). The wender utah rating scale: An aid in the retrospective diagnosis of childhood attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. American Journal of Psychiatry, 150, 885–890.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
  45. Wardle, H., Moody, A., Spence, S., Orford, J., Volberg, R., & Jotangia, D. (2011). British gambling prevalence survey 2010. London: National Center for Social Research.Google Scholar
  46. Wardle, H., Sproston, K., Orford, J., Erens, B., Griffiths, M., & Constantine, R. (2007). British gambling prevalence survey 2007. London: National Center for Social Research.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • Marc Valleur
    • 1
  • Irène Codina
    • 1
  • Jean-Luc Vénisse
    • 2
    • 3
  • Lucia Romo
    • 4
    • 5
    • 6
  • David Magalon
    • 7
  • Mélina Fatséas
    • 8
  • Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet
    • 9
  • Mohamed-Ali Gorsane
    • 10
    • 11
  • Alice Guilleux
    • 3
    • 12
  • Groupe JEU
  • Marie Grall-Bronnec
    • 2
    • 3
  • Gaëlle Challet-Bouju
    • 2
    • 3
  1. 1.Marmottan Medical Center, GPS Perray-VaucluseHôpital MarmottanParisFrance
  2. 2.Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders”, Department of Addictology and PsychiatryUniversity Hospital of NantesNantesFrance
  3. 3.EA 4275 SPHERE “bioStatistics, Pharmacoepidemiology and Human sciEnces Research tEam”, Faculties of Medicine and Pharmaceutical SciencesUniversity of NantesNantesFrance
  4. 4.EA 4430 CLIPSYD «CLInique PSYchanalyse Développement»University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La DéfenseNanterreFrance
  5. 5.Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)Louis Mourier Hospital of ColombesColombesFrance
  6. 6.Psychotherapies UnitSainte-Anne Hospital – Psychiatry and NeurosciencesParisFrance
  7. 7.Department of Adult PsychiatrySainte-Marguerite University Hospital of MarseilleMarseilleFrance
  8. 8.Psychiatry Laboratory, Sanpsy CNRS USR 3413University of Bordeaux and Charles Perrens HospitalBordeauxFrance
  9. 9.Psychiatry DepartmentUniversity Hospital of Clermont-FerrandClermont-FerrandFrance
  10. 10.Psychiatry and Addictology Department, Assistance Publique – Hôpitaux de Paris (APHP)Paul Brousse University Hospital of VillejuifVillejuifFrance
  11. 11.Henri EY Hospital, GPS Perray-VaucluseParisFrance
  12. 12.Unit of Methodology and BiostatisticsUniversity Hospital of NantesNantesFrance

Personalised recommendations