A Gamblers Clustering Based on Their Favorite Gambling Activity
The objective of this study was to identify profiles of gamblers to explain the choice of preferred gambling activity among both problem and non-problem gamblers. 628 non-problem and problem gamblers were assessed with a structured interview including “healthy” (sociodemographic characteristics, gambling habits and personality profile assessed with the Temperament and Character Inventory-125) and “pathological” [diagnosis of pathological gambling, gambling-related cognitions (GRCs) and psychiatric comorbidity] variables. We performed a two-step cluster analysis based solely on “healthy” variables to identify gamblers’ profiles which typically reflect the choice of preferred gambling activity. The obtained classes were then described using both “healthy” and “pathological” variables, by comparing each class to the rest of the sample. Clusters were generated. Class 1 (Electronic Gaming Machines gamblers) showed high cooperativeness, a lower level of GRC about strategy and more depressive disorders. Class 2 (games with deferred results gamblers) were high novelty seekers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more addictive disorders. Class 3 (roulette gamblers) were more often high rollers and showed a higher level of GRC about strategy and more manic or hypomanic episodes and more obsessive–compulsive disorders. Class 4 (instant lottery gamblers) showed a lower tendency to suicide attempts. Class 5 (scratch cards gamblers) were high harm avoiders and showed a lower overall level of GRC and more panic attacks and eating disorders. The preference for one particular gambling activity may concern different profiles of gamblers. This study highlights the importance of considering the pair gambler-game rather than one or the other separately, and may provide support for future research on gambling and preventive actions directed toward a particular game.
KeywordsGambling Clustering Personality Gambling habits Distorted cognitions Continuous gambling
We wish to sincerely thank all the staff who contributed to this study (JEU group), for their valuable assistance and significant investment. A special thanks to those who collected the data. We also want to thank Olé Bjerg and Claude Boutin for their kind permission to reproduce their game classifications. Members of the JEU Group are: Marie Grall-Bronnec, Gaëlle Challet-Bouju, Jean-Luc Vénisse, Lucia Romo, Cindy Legauffre, Caroline Dubertret, Irène Codina, Marc Valleur, Marc Auriacombe, Mélina Fatséas, Jean-Marc Alexandre, Pierre-Michel Llorca, Isabelle Chéreau-Boudet, Christophe Lançon, David Magalon, Michel Reynaud and Mohamed-Ali Gorsane. This study was supported by both the joint support of the French Inter-departmental Mission for the fight against drugs and drug addiction (MILDT) and the French National Institute of Health and Medical Research (INSERM), as part of the call for research projects launched by these two organizations in 2007, and a grant from the French Ministry of Health (PHRC 2009—RCB 2008-A01188-47). There were no constraints on publishing. This research was conducted at the initiative of and coordinated by the Clinical Investigation Unit BALANCED “BehaviorAL AddictioNs and ComplEx mood Disorders” of the University Hospital of Nantes, who is the sponsor of this study.
Conflict of interest
M.G.B., J.L.V. and G.C.B. declare that the University Hospital of Nantes has received funding from gambling industry (Française Des Jeux and Pari Mutuel Urbain) in the form of a sponsorship which supports the gambling section of the BALANCED Unit (the Reference Centre for Excessive Gambling). Scientific independence towards gambling industry operators is warranted. C.L. declares that the University of Paris Ouest Nanterre La Défense has received funding directly from gambling industry (Française Des Jeux and Pari Mutuel Urbain) as part of other research contracts—this funding has never had any influence on the present work. J.B.H., N.R., M.V., D.M., M.F., .I.C.B. and M.A.G. declare that they have no conflicts of interest. There were no constraints on publishing.
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