Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 31, Issue 4, pp 1651–1669 | Cite as

A Resource Model of Change: Client Factors that Influence Problem Gambling Treatment Outcomes

  • Kevin GomesEmail author
  • Antonio Pascual-Leone
Original Paper


This study examined a resource-based model of change whereby poor problem gambling (PG) treatment outcomes and relapse are viewed as resulting from client coping resources being diminished or overwhelmed. Specifically, client factors that work like resources to facilitate treatment (i.e., social support, self-efficacy, motivation, readiness for change, and emotion-focused coping) or use up resources and hinder treatment (i.e., co-morbid depression and life stress) were examined. The 50 participants were followed for 4 months after entering treatment for PG and were assessed at baseline, 1 month into treatment, 2 months into treatment, and during a follow-up 4 months after treatment began. Of the 50 participants, 20 dropped-out of treatment and 24 completed the follow-up measure. The results suggest that self-efficacy and depression, measured at baseline, are good predictors of 1- and 2-month outcomes, whereas depression and life stress, measured after 2 months of treatment, are good predictors of 4-month outcomes. In the strongest of these models, baseline scores of client self-efficacy and depressed affect explained as much as 48.7 % of the variance in gambling behaviors 2 months later.


Problem gambling Self-efficacy Change process Relapse Depression Life stress 



The authors would like to acknowledge the financial support of the Ontario Problem Gambling Research Centre and the support of the Problem Gambling Research Group at the University of Windsor.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of PsychologyUniversity of WindsorWindsorCanada

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