Validation of the Gambling Motives Questionnaire in Emerging Adults
- 548 Downloads
People engage in gambling behaviour for a variety of different reasons, some of which are riskier than others in terms of associations with heavy and problem gambling. Stewart and Zack (Addiction 103:1110–1117, 2008) developed a measure called the Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) that assesses levels of three distinct gambling motives: enhancement (to increase positive emotions), coping (to decrease negative emotions), and social (to increase affiliation). While this measure has been validated in a community-recruited sample of middle-aged gamblers, the GMQ has yet to be validated in emerging adulthood (ages 18–25 years)—a developmental period associated with increased risk for heavy and problematic gambling. The current project tested the psychometric properties of the GMQ in a community sample of emerging adult gamblers using archival data from the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults. Participants (N = 487; 73.9 % Caucasian; 52.6 % female; mean age 22.23 years) completed the GMQ and questionnaire measures of gambling behaviour and problems. Exploratory factor analysis revealed that a three-factor model adequately fit the data; however, problematic items were identified. A modified 9-item version of the GMQ with the problem items removed fit the data well. Both the original 15-item and the 9-item versions had acceptable subscale alpha reliabilities (αs >.78). While all three subscales (from both the 9-item and 15-item versions) were positively correlated with problem gambling, only enhancement motives emerged as a significant independent predictor when the other motives and gambling behaviours were entered as simultaneous predictors. These results suggest the GMQ is a valid measure for tapping motives in emerging adults, and that high enhancement motives are particularly predictive of gambling problems in this developmental period. Future intervention efforts might specifically target enhancement motives in emerging adults.
KeywordsEmerging adult gamblers Gambling Motives Questionnaire (GMQ) Validation of the GMQ Coping motives Enhancement motives Social motives
This study was funded by an operating grant from the Manitoba Gambling Research Program (MGRP) of Manitoba Lotteries awarded to Sherry H. Stewart and Sean P. Mackinnon; however, the findings and conclusions of this paper are those solely of the authors and do not necessarily represent the views of Manitoba Lotteries. The Manitoba Gaming Control Commission, the Manitoba Lotteries Corporation, and the Addictions Foundation of Manitoba graciously permitted the researchers access to the Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults (MLSYA) dataset. Sean P. Mackinnon was supported by a postdoctoral fellowship from the Social Sciences and Humanities Research Council. Laura Lambe was supported by a summer studentship from the Faculty of Science Summer Studentship program at Dalhousie University. Pam Collins and Jennifer Swansburg are thanked for their research assistance.
- American Psychiatric Association (APA). (1994). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed.). Washington, DC: American Psychiatric Association (APA).Google Scholar
- Cohen, J. (1998). Statistical power analysis for the behavioral sciences. Hillsdale, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.Google Scholar
- Costello, A. B., & Osborne, J. W. (2005). Best practices in exploratory factor analysis: Four recommendations for getting the most from your analysis. Practical Assessment, Research, and Evaluation, 10, 1–9. http://pareonline.net/getvn.asp?v=10&n=7
- Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian Problem Gambling Index: Final report. Ottawa, ON: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
- Goldstein, A. L., Stewart, S. H., Hoaken, P. N. S., & Flett, G. L. (2013). Mood, motives, and gambling in young adults: An examination of within- and between-person variations using experience sampling. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors [E-pub ahead of print]. doi: 10.1037/a0033001.
- Hilbe, J. M. (2nd Ed.). (2011). Negative binomial regression. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.Google Scholar
- Kessler, R. C., Hwang, I., LaBrie, R., Petukhova, M., Sampson, N. A., Winters, K. C., et al. (2008). The prevalence and correlates of DSM-IV pathological gambling in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication. Psychological Medicine, 38, 1351–1360. doi: 10.1017/S0033291708002900.PubMedCentralPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Keyes, C. L., Eisenberg, D., Perry, G. S., Dube, S. R., Kroenke, K., & Dhingra, S. S. (2012). The relationship of level of positive mental health with current mental disorders in predicting suicidal behavior and academic impairment in college students. Journal of American College Health, 60, 126–133. doi: 10.1080/07448481.2011.608393.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Kline, R. B. (2011). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (3rd ed.). New York, NY: Guilford.Google Scholar
- Manitoba Gaming Control Commission, Manitoba Lotteries Corporation, & Addictions Foundation of Manitoba. (2011). Manitoba Longitudinal Study of Young Adults [data file and codebook obtained through the MLSYA Data Access Program]. Winnipeg, MB.Google Scholar
- Stewart, S. H., Demetrioff, S., Ellery, M., & Wohl, M. (2011). The role of gambling motives in university student gambling behavior and problems [Summary]. Canadian Psychology, 52(2a), 181.Google Scholar
- Stewart, S. H., Zack, M., Collins, P., Klein, R. M., & Fragopoulos, F. (2008). Subtyping pathological gamblers on the basis of affective motivations for gambling: Relations to gambling problems, drinking problems, and affective motivations for drinking. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 22, 257–268. doi: 10.1037/0893-164X.22.2.257.CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Tabachnick, B. G., & Fidell, L. S. (2011). Using multivariate statistics. New York, NY: Allyn & Bacon.Google Scholar
- World Health Organization. (1993). The ICD-10 classification of mental and behavioural disorders: Diagnostic criteria for research. Geneva: World Health Organization.Google Scholar
- Wynne, H. (2003). Introducing the Canadian Problem Gambling Index. Edmonton, AB: Wynne Resources.Google Scholar
- Zuckerman, M. (1974). The sensation seeking motive. In B. A. Maher (Ed.), Progress in experimental personality research (Vol. 7, pp. 79–148). New York: Academic Press.Google Scholar