Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 29, Issue 3, pp 417–433 | Cite as

Gambling Participation and Problem Gambling Severity among Rural and Peri-Urban Poor South African Adults in KwaZulu-Natal

  • Andrew Dellis
  • David Spurrett
  • Andre Hofmeyr
  • Carla Sharp
  • Don Ross
Original Paper

Abstract

Poor South Africans are significantly poorer and have lower employment rates than the subjects of most published research on gambling prevalence and problem gambling. Some existing work suggests relationships between gambling activity (including severity of risk for problem gambling), income, employment status and casino proximity. The objective of the study reported here is to establish the prevalence of gambling, including at risk and pathological gambling, and the profile of gambling activities in two samples of poor South African adults living in a rural and a peri-urban community. A total of 300 (150 male, 150 female) adults in KwaZulu-Natal, South Africa in communities selected using census data, completed the Problem Gambling Severity Index and a survey of socioeconomic and household information, and of gambling knowledge and activity. It was found that gambling was common, and—except for lottery participation—mostly informal or unlicensed. Significant differences between rural and peri-urban populations were found. Peri-urban subjects were slightly less poor, and gambled more and on a different and wider range of activities. Problem and at risk gamblers were disproportionately represented among the more urbanised. Casino proximity appeared largely irrelevant to gambling activity.

Keywords

Gambling Problem gambling Gambling participation South Africa Poverty Income Employment Casino proximity 

Notes

Acknowledgments

This research was funded by the South African Responsible Gambling Trust, through the National Responsible Gambling Programme of South Africa, Executive Director Peter Collins. We thank the following people who contributed background research in the development of the survey instrument: Graeme Barr, Peter Collins, Harold Kincaid, Jacques Rousseau and Rudy E. Vuchinich.

Ethics

All procedures and measures were approved by the Ethics Review Board of the University of KwaZulu-Natal. Participants gave their informed consent prior to their inclusion in the study.

Conflict of interest

The authors declare that they have no conflict of interest.

References

  1. Abbott, M. W., & Volberg, R. A. (1992). Frequent gamblers and problem gamblers in New Zealand. Reseearch series No 14. Wellington: New Zealand Department of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  2. Abbott, M. W., & Volberg, R. A. (2000). Taking the pulse on gambling and problem gambling in New Zealand: A report on phase one of the 1999 national prevalence survey. Wellington: Department of Internal Affairs.Google Scholar
  3. American Psychiatric Association. (2000). Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders (4th ed., text rev.). Washington, DC: Author.Google Scholar
  4. Committee on the Social and Economic Impact of Pathological Gambling, National Research Council. (1999). “Front Matter.” Pathological gambling: a critical review. Washington, DC: The National Academies Press.Google Scholar
  5. Cox, B., Yu, N., Afifi, T., & Ladouceur, R. (2005). A national survey of gambling problems in Canada. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 4, 213–217.Google Scholar
  6. Davidson, T., & Rodgers, B. (2010). 2009 Survey of the nature and extent of gambling, and problem gambling, in the Australian Capital Territory. Report for the ACT Gambling and Racing Commission, Canberra.Google Scholar
  7. Delfabbro, P. H. (1998). The psychology of gambling in South Australia. Unpublished Ph.D. dissertation. Department of Psychology, University of Adelaide.Google Scholar
  8. Dickerson, M. G., Baron, E., Hong, S. M., & Cottrell, D. (1996). Estimating the extent and degree of gambling related problems in the Australian population: A national survey. Journal of Gambling Studies, 12, 161–178.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Ferris, J., & Wynne, H. (2001). The Canadian problem gambling index: Final report. Ottawa: Canadian Centre on Substance Abuse.Google Scholar
  10. Gambling Review Body, Department for Culture, Media and Sport. (2001). Gambling review report. Norwich: HMSO.Google Scholar
  11. Gerstein, D. R., Volberg, R. A., Toce, M. T., Harwood, H., Palmer, A., et al. (1999). Gambling impact and behavior study: Report to the National Gambling Impact Study Commission. Chicago, IL: National Opinion Research Center at the University of Chicago.Google Scholar
  12. Grant, J. E., Kim, S. W., Odlaug, B. L., Buchanan, S. N., & Potenza, M. N. (2009). Late-onset pathological gambling: clinical correlates and gender differences. Journal of Psychiatric Research, 43(4), 380–387.Google Scholar
  13. Home Affairs Bureau. (2005). Study on Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: Social Sciences Research Centre of the University of Hong Kong. Study commissioned by Home Affairs Bureau, Government of Hong Kong, SAR, China.Google Scholar
  14. Ka-Chio Fong, D., & Ozorio, B. (2005). Gambling participation and prevalence estimates of pathological gambling in a far-east city: Macao. UNLV Gaming Research Review Journal, 9(2), 15–28.Google Scholar
  15. Lesieur, H. R., & Blume, S. B. (1987). The South Oaks Gambling Screen (SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers. American Journal of Psychiatry, 144(9), 1184–1188.Google Scholar
  16. Lund, I., & Nordlund, S. (2003). Pengespill og pengeproblemer i Norge (Rapport nr. 2/2000). Oslo: Statens institutt for rusmiddelforsning.Google Scholar
  17. Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General. (2003). British Columbia problem gambling prevalence study. Victoria, BC: Ipsos-Reid & Gemini Research. Study commissioned by Ministry of Public Safety and Solicitor General, Government of British Colombia, BC Canada.Google Scholar
  18. Olasun, D. T., Finnbogadottir, H., Hauksdottir, A., & Barudottir, S. K. (2003). An Icelandic version of the problem gambling severity index: A psychometric evaluation. In Paper presented at the 27th nordic psychiatric congress, Reykjavik, Iceland.Google Scholar
  19. Productivity Commission. (1999). Australia’s gambling industries, Report No. 10. AusInfo, Canberra.Google Scholar
  20. Ross, D., Collins, P., Dellis, A., Hofmeyr, A., & Kincaid, et al. (2010). Summary of basic data on the national urban prevalence study on gambling behaviour. National Responsible Gambling Programme (South Africa).Google Scholar
  21. School for Social and Policy Research & School of Health Sciences. (2006). Northern territory gambling prevalence survey 2005. Darwin: Charles Darwin University.Google Scholar
  22. Shaffer, H. J., & Hall, M. N. (2001). Updating and refining meta-analytic prevalence estimates of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada. Canadian Journal of Public Health, 92(3), 168–172.Google Scholar
  23. Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., & Vander Bilt, J. (1999). Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling behavior in the United States and Canada: A research synthesis. American Journal of Public Health, 89(9), 1369–1376.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Shaffer, H. J., LaBrie, R. A., & LaPlante, D. (2004). Laying the foundation for quantifying regional exposure to social phenomena: considering the case of legalized gambling as a public health toxin. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18(1), 40–48.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Sharp, C., Steinberg, L., Yaroslavsky, I., Hofmeyr, A., Dellis, A., & Ross, D., Kincaid H. (2011). An item response theory analysis of the problem gambling severity index. Assessment. (August 19, Epub ahead of print).Google Scholar
  26. Sproston, K., Erens, B., & Orford, J. (2000). Gambling behaviour in Britain: Results from the British gambling prevalence survey. London: National Centre for Social Research.Google Scholar
  27. Statistics South Africa. (2008). Income and expenditure of households 2005/2006. Pretoria: Analysis of Results.Google Scholar
  28. Statistics South Africa. (2010). Key indicators: http://www.statssa.gov.za/keyindicators/keyindicators.asp. Accessed December 7, 2010.
  29. United Nations Development Programme. (2010). Human development report 2010. New York: Palgrave Macmillan.Google Scholar
  30. Volberg, R. A., Nysse-Carris, K. L., & Gerstein, D. R. (2006). 2006 California problem gambling prevalence survey. Final report. Submitted to the California Department of Alcohol and drug Problems, Office of Problem and Pathological Gambling. Chicago: National Opinion Research Center.Google Scholar
  31. Wardle, H., Sproston, K., Orford, J., Erens, B., & Griffiths, M., et al. (2007). British gambling prevalence survey 2007. National Centre for Social Research.Google Scholar
  32. Welte, J. W., Barnes, G. M., Wieczorek, W. F., Tidwell, M.-C., & Parker, J. C. (2003). Risk factors for pathological gambling. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 323–335.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Welte, J. W., Wieczorek, W. F., Barnes, G. M., Tidwell, M.-C., & Hoffman, J. H. (2004). The relationship of ecological and geographic factors to gambing behaviour and pathology. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20(4), 405–423.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Wildman, R. W. II. (1998). Gambling: An attempt at an integration. Edmonton, Alberta, Canada: Wynne Resources.Google Scholar
  35. World Bank. (2009). Africa development indicators 2008/2009. Washington.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Andrew Dellis
    • 1
    • 2
  • David Spurrett
    • 3
  • Andre Hofmeyr
    • 2
  • Carla Sharp
    • 4
  • Don Ross
    • 2
    • 5
  1. 1.Brain and Behaviour Initiative (BBI), Department of Psychiatry and Mental HealthUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  2. 2.Research Unit in Behavioural Economics and Neuroeconomics (RUBEN), School of EconomicsUniversity of Cape TownRondeboschSouth Africa
  3. 3.PhilosophyUniversity of KwaZulu-Natal, Howard College CampusDurbanSouth Africa
  4. 4.Department of PsychologyUniversity of HoustonHoustonUSA
  5. 5.Center for Economic Analysis of RiskGeorgia State UniversityAtlantaUSA

Personalised recommendations