Journal of Gambling Studies

, Volume 28, Issue 4, pp 561–572 | Cite as

Validation of the Chinese Version of the Gamblers’ Belief Questionnaire (GBQ-C)

Original Paper

Abstract

A growing body of evidence is documenting the significant role of cognitive factors in influencing gambling behaviors. Although measures of cognitive biases have been developed, further validation of these scales is needed among non-Western samples. The 21-item Gamblers’ Belief Questionnaire was originally developed and validated by Steenbergh et al. (in Psychol. Addict. Behav., 16: 143–149, 2002). The scale then has been widely used in the gambling research of the West. The present study was designed to examine and validate the Chinese version of Gamblers’ Belief Questionnaire (GBQ-C) using 258 Chinese participants. Confirmatory factor analyses indicated the 2-factor model provided a good fit to the data as evidenced by various model fit indices (CFI = .91, RMSEA = .08 and SRMR = .05). Additional evidence for the validity of the GBQ-C was provided by significant correlations with other relevant measures (range .40–.75). In sum, the present study provides support for the GBQ-C as a valuable tool for assessing gambling cognitions among Chinese samples.

Keywords

Gambling Chinese Belief Cognitions Validation 

References

  1. Bentler, P. M., & Bonett, D. G. (1980). Significance tests and goodness of fit in the analysis of covariance structures. Psychological Bulletin, 88, 588–606.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Bentler, P. M., & Wu, E. J. C. (1995). EQS for Macintosh user’s guide. Encino, CA: Multivariate Software.Google Scholar
  3. Chen, C., Greenberger, E., Lester, J., Dong, Q., & Guo, M. S. (1998). A cross-cultural study of family and peer correlates of adolescent misconduct. Developmental Psychology, 34, 770–781.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Cheung, G., & Rensvold, R. (2002). Evaluating goodness-of-fit indexes for testing measurement invariance. Structural Equation Modeling A Multidisciplinary Journal, 9(2), 233–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Delfabbro, P., & Winefield, A. (2000). Predictors of irrational thinking in regular slot machine gamblers. The Journal of psychology, 134(2), 117–128.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Gabourey, A., & Ladouceur, R. (1989). Erroneous perceptions and gambling. Journal of Social Behavior and Personality, 4, 411–420.Google Scholar
  7. Griffiths, M. D. (1994). The role of cognitive bias and skill in fruit machine gambling. British Journal of Psychology, 85, 351–369.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Gupta, R., & Derevensky, J. L. (1998). An empirical examination of Jacobs’ General Theory of Addictions: do adolescent gamblers fit the theory? Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 17–49.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Hong, Y. Y., & Chiu, C. Y. (1988). Sex, locus of control, and illusion of control in Hong Kong as correlates of gambling involvement. Journal of Social Psychology, 128, 667–673.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Hsieh, T., Shybut, J., & Lotsof, E. (1969). Internal versus external control and ethnic group membership: A cross cultural comparison. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 33, 122–124.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Hu, L., & Bentler, P. M. (1998). Fit indices in covariance structure modeling: Sensitivity to unparameterized model misspecification. Psychological Methods, 3, 424–453.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Jefferson, S., & Nicki, R. (2003). A new instrument to measure cognitive distortions in video lottery terminal users: The Informational Biases Scale (IBS)’. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 171–180.Google Scholar
  13. Joukhador, J., Blaszczynski, A. P., & MacCallum, F. (2004). Superstitious beliefs in gambling among problem and non-problem gamblers: preliminary data. Journal of Gambling Studies, 20, 171–180.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  14. Kinzie, J. D., & Manson, S. M. (1987). The use of self-rating scales in cross-cultural psychiatry. Hospital & Community Psychiatry, 38, 190–195.Google Scholar
  15. Kline, R. B. (2005). Principles and practice of structural equation modeling (2nd ed.). New York: Guilford.Google Scholar
  16. Ladouceur, R. (2004). Perceptions among pathological and non-pathological gamblers. Addictive Behaviors, 29, 555–565.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Ladouceur, R., & Walker, M. (1996). A cognitive perspective on gambling. In P. M. Salkoskvis (Ed.), Trends in cognitive and behavioral therapies (pp. 89–120). New York: Wiley.Google Scholar
  18. Ladouceur, R., Gaboury, A., Dumont, M., & Rochette, P. (1988). Gambling: relationship between the frequency of wins and irrational thinking. Journal of Psychology, 122, 409–414.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Lam, D. (2007). An exploratory study of gambling motivations and their impact upon purchase frequencies of various gambling products. Psychology and Marketing, 24, 815–827.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Lao, R. C. (1977). Levinson’s IPC (internal-external control) scale: A comparison of Chinese and American students. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 9, 113–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Lau, L., & Ranyard, R. (2005). Chinese and English probabilistic thinking and risk taking in gambling. Journal of Cross-Cultural Psychology, 36, 621–627.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Liu, X., Kurita, H., Uchiyama, M., Okawa, M., Liu, L., & Ma, D. (2000). Life events, lcous of control, and behavioral problems among Chinese adolescents. Journal of Clinical Psychology, 56, 1565–1577.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Loo, F. M. Y., Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2008). Gambling among the Chinese: A comprehensive review. Clinical Psychology Review, 28, 1152–1166.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Loo, F. M. Y., Oei, T. P. S., & Raylu, N. (2011). Psychometric evaluation of the Problem Gambling Severity Index-Chinese version (PGSI-C). Journal of Gambling Studies, 27, 453–466.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Moodie, C. (2008). Student gambling, erroneous cognitions, and awareness of treatment in Scotland. Journal of Gambling Issues, 21, 30–55.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Niaura, R. (2000). Cognitive social learning and related perspectives on drug craving. Addiction, 95(Suppl 2), S155–S163.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  27. Nurco, D. N. (1985). A discussion of validity. In B. A. Rouse, N. J. Kozel, & L. G. Richards (Eds.), Self-report methods of estimating drug use: Meeting current challenges to validity (pp. 4–11). NIDA Research Monograph No. 57. Washington, DC: U.S. Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  28. Oei, T., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2007a). Validation of the Chinese version of the gambling related cognitions scale (GRCS-C). Journal of Gambling Studies, 23, 309–322.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Oei, T., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2007b). Validation of the Chinese version of the gambling urges scale (GUS-C). International Gambling Studies, 7, 101–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Oei, T. P. S., Lin, J., & Raylu, N. (2008). Relationship between gambling cognitions, psychological states and gambling: A cross-cultural study of Chinese and Caucasians in Australia. Journal of Cross Cultural Psychology, 39, 147–161.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Papineau, E. (2005). Pathological gambling in Montreal’s Chinese community: An anthropological perspective. Journal of Gambling Studies, 21, 157–178.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004a). Role of culture in gambling and problem gambling. Clinical Psychology Review, 23, 1087–1114.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004b). The gambling related cognitions scale (GRCS): Development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Addiction, 99, 757–769.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Raylu, N., & Oei, T. P. S. (2004c). The gambling urge scale (GUS): Development, confirmatory factor validation and psychometric properties. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 18, 100–105.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  35. Rogers, P. (1998). The cognitive psychology of lottery gambling: A theoretical review. Journal of Gambling Studies, 14, 11–134.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  36. Sharpe, L. (2002). A reformulated cognitive-behavioral model of problem gambling. A biopsychological perspective. Clinical Psychological Review, 22, 1–25.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. Steenbergh, T. A., Meyers, A. W., May, R. K., & Whelan, J. P. (2002). Development and validation of the gamblers’ beliefs questionnaire. Psychology of Addictive Behaviors, 16, 143–149.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Tang, C., & Oei, T. (2011). Gambling cognition and subjective welling as mediators between perceived stress and problem gambling: A cross-cultural study on White and Chinese problem gamblers. Psychology of Addictive Behaviours. Advance online publication, doi:10.1037/a0024013.
  39. Tang, C., & Wu, A (2011). Gambling-related cognitive biases and pathological gambling among youths, young adults, and mature adults in Chinese societies. Journal of Gambling Studies. Advance online publication, doi:10.1007/s10899-011-9294-x.
  40. The Government of the Hong Kong Special Administrative Region. (2011). Retrieved July 20 2011 from the World Wide Web: http://www.pland.gov.hk/pland_en/tech_doc/hkpsg/full/ch3/pdf/ch3.pdf.
  41. The Hong Kong Polytechnic University. (2011, in press). Report on Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: Author.Google Scholar
  42. The University of Hong Kong. (2005). Report on a study of Hong Kong people’s participation in gambling activities. Hong Kong: Author.Google Scholar
  43. Tiffany, S. T. (1999). Cognitive concepts of craving. Alcohol Research and Health, 23, 215–224.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  44. Toneatto, T. (1999). Cognitive psychopathology of problem gambling. Substance Use and Misuse, 34, 1593–1604.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T., Calderwood, K., Dragonetti, R., & Tsaons, A. (1997). Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling. Journal of Gambling Studies, 13, 253–266.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Tsang, E. (2004). Toward a scientific inquiry into superstitious business decision-making. Organizational Studies, 25, 923–946.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R., & Fulkerson, J. (1993). Toward the development of an adolescent gambling problem severity scale. Journal of Gambling Studies, 9(1), 63–84.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  48. Winters, K. C., Stinchfield, R., & Kim, L. (1995). Monitoring adolescent gambling in Minnesota. Journal of Gambling Studies, 11, 165–183.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  49. Wohl, M. J. A., & Enzle, M. E. (2003). The effects of near wins and losses on self-perceived personal luck and subsequent gambling behavior. Journal of Experimental Social Psychology, 39, 184–191.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wohl, M. J. A., Young, M. M., & Hart, K. E. (2007). Self-perceptions of dispositional luck: Relationship to DSM gambling symptoms, subjective enjoyment of gambling and treatment readiness. Substance Use and Misuse, 42, 43–63.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  51. Yip, K. (2003). Traditional Chinese religious beliefs and superstitious in delusions and hallucinations of Chinese schizophrenic patients. International Journal of Social Psychiatry, 49, 97–111.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  52. Yu, A. B. (1996). Ultimate life concerns, self, and chinese achievement motivation. In M. H. Bond (Ed.), The handbook of chinese psychology (pp. 227–246). Hong Kong: Oxford University Press.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Applied Social SciencesThe Hong Hong Polytechnic UniversityHung HomHong Kong
  2. 2.Department of Social Work and Social AdministrationThe University of Hong KongPok Fu LamHong Kong

Personalised recommendations