Structural Characteristics of Video Lotteries: Effects of a Stopping Device on Illusion of Control and Gambling Persistence Abstract
Two studies investigated the effects of a video lottery terminal stopping device on gamblers’ thoughts and behavior. This structural characteristic allows players to voluntarily stop the spinning of the reels. The first study investigated the effect of this device on the development of illusions of control. It was predicted that players using the stopping device would believe that (1) symbols displayed could differ depending on when the game is stopped, (2) there is a possibility of controlling the outcome of the game, (3) skills may be a factor influencing the results, and finally (4) a stopping device would improve the probability of personal success (i.e., developing the illusion of control). The second study aimed to further evaluate the effects of the stopping device on gambling behavior. It was hypothesised that using the stopping device would encourage players to increase the number of games played in a session. Results confirmed all predictions and showed that offering a stopping device on video lottery terminals modifies gamblers’ cognition and behavior. The theoretical and practical implications of these results are discussed in the context of responsible gambling policies.
Keywords video lottery structural characteristics illusion of control gambling persistence References Blaszczynski, A. 2000Overcoming Compulsive Gambling Robinson London Google Scholar Blaszczynski, A., Ladouceur, R., Shaffer, H. 2004 A Science-Based Framework for Responsible Gambling: The Reno Model Journal of Gambling Studies 20 301 317 PubMed Google Scholar Chau, A. W., Phillips, J. G. 1995 Effects of perceived control upon wagering and attributions in computer blackjack Journal of General Psychology 122 253 269 Google Scholar Delfabbro, P. H., Winefield, A. H. 1999 Poker-machine gambling: An analysis of within session characteristics British Journal of Psychology 90 425 439 Google Scholar Delfabbro, P. H., Winefield, A. H. 2000 Predictors of irrational thinking in regular slot machine gamblers The Journal of Psychology 134 117 128 PubMed Google Scholar Dickerson, M., Baron, E. 2000 Contemporary issues and future directions for research into pathological gambling Addiction 95 1145 1159 PubMed Google Scholar Diskin, K. M., Hodgins, D. C. 1999 Narrowing of attention and dissociation in pathological video lottery gamblers Journal of Gambling Studies 15 17 28 Google Scholar Dixon, M. R., Hayes, L. J., Ebbs, R. E. 1998 Engaging in “illusory control” during repeated risk-taking Psychological Reports 83 959 962 PubMed Google Scholar Griffiths, M. 1990 The gaming industry and the psychology of the fruit machine The Occupational Psychologist 11 28 32 Google Scholar Griffiths, M. 1993 Fruit machine gambling: The importance of structural characteristics Journal of Gambling Studies 9 133 152 Google Scholar Griffiths, M. 1999 Gambling technology: Prospects for problem gambling Journal of Gambling Studies 15 265 283 PubMed Google Scholar Koehler, J. J., Gibbs, B. J., Hogarth, R. M. 1994 Shattering the illusion of control: Multi-shot versus single-shot gambles Journal of Behavioral Decision Making 7 183 191 Google Scholar Ladouceur, R., Sylvain, C., Boutin, C., Doucet, C. 2002Understanding and treating pathological gamblers Wiley London Google Scholar Ladouceur, R., Walker, M. 1996 A cognitive perspective on gambling Salkovskis, P. M. eds. Trends in cognitive therapy Wiley Oxford 89 120 Google Scholar Ladouceur, R., Walker, M. 1998 The Cognitive approach to understanding and treating pathological gambling Bellack, A. S. Hersen, M. eds. Comprehensive clinical psychology Pergamon New York 588 601 Google Scholar Langer, E. J. 1975 The illusion of control Journal of Personality and Social Psychology 32 311 328 Google Scholar Lesieur, H. R., Blume, S. B. 1987 The South Oaks Gambling Screen (The SOGS): A new instrument for the identification of pathological gamblers American Journal of Psychiatry 144 1184 1188 PubMed Google Scholar Loba, P., Stewart, S. H., Klein, R. M., Blackburn, J. R. 2001 Manipulations of the features of satndard video lottery terminal (VLT) games: Effects in pathological and non-pathological gamblers Journal of Gambling Studies 17 297 320 PubMed Google Scholar Milton, S. 2001Stop Gambling : A Self-Help Manual for Giving up Gambling Pan Macmillan Australia Google Scholar Nova Scotia Department of Health 1998Nova Scotia video lottery players survey 1997/98 NovaScotia Department of Health Nova Scotia Google Scholar Presson, P. K., Denassi, V. A. 1996 Illusion of control: A meta-analytic review Journal of Social Behavior and Personality 11 493 510 Google Scholar Shaffer, H. J., Hall, M. N., Vander Bilt, J. 1997Estimating the prevalence of disordered gambling in the United States and Canada: A meta-analysis Harvard College Boston, MA Google Scholar Toneatto, T., Blitz-Miller, T., Calderwook, K., Dragonetti, R., Tsanos, A. 1997 Cognitive distortions in heavy gambling Journal of Gambling Studies 13 253 266 PubMed Google Scholar Volberg, R. A., Steadman, H. J. 1988 Refining prevalence estimates of pathological gambling American Journal of Psychiatry 145 502 505 PubMed Google Scholar Walker, M. 1992The psychology of gambling Pergamon New York Google Scholar Copyright information
© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2005