Journal of Global Optimization

, Volume 52, Issue 2, pp 335–351 | Cite as

Variance or spectral density in sampled data filtering?

  • Graham C. Goodwin
  • Juan I. Yuz
  • Mario E. Salgado
  • Juan C. Agüero


Most physical systems operate in continuous time. However, to interact with such systems one needs to take samples. This raises the question of the relationship between the sampled response and the response of the underlying continuous-time system. In this paper we review several aspects of the sampling process. In particular, we examine the role played by variance and spectral density in describing discrete random processes. We argue that spectral density has several advantages over variance. We illustrate the ideas by reference to the problem of state estimation using the discrete-time Kalman filter.


Estimation Sampled data Kalman filter 


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. 2011

Authors and Affiliations

  • Graham C. Goodwin
    • 1
  • Juan I. Yuz
    • 2
  • Mario E. Salgado
    • 2
  • Juan C. Agüero
    • 1
  1. 1.Centre for Complex Dynamic Systems and ControlThe University of NewcastleNewcastleAustralia
  2. 2.Department of Electronic EngineeringUniversidad Técnica Federico Santa MaríaValparaisoChile

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