A Genetic Lung Cancer Susceptibility Test may have a Positive Effect on Smoking Cessation
- 376 Downloads
Smoking increases the risk of developing lung cancer. Genetic loci have been identified which could form the basis of a lung cancer susceptibility test; but little is known whether such a test would interest or motivate those trying to quit smoking. To address this, we investigated the attitudes of people trying to quit smoking towards genetic susceptibility testing for lung cancer. Participant’s attitudes to topics associated with lung cancer susceptibility testing were assessed; were they interested in genetic testing? What impact would a hypothetical high- or low- risk result have on smoking cessation? 680 self-completion questionnaires were given to individuals attending National Health Service stop smoking clinics in three different areas of the United Kingdom between 2011 and 2012. 139 questionnaires were returned, giving a 20 % response rate. Participants expressed an interest in a genetic susceptibility test for lung cancer and almost all reported that a high-risk result would increase their motivation to stop smoking. However, many participants had a neutral attitude towards a low-risk result. Most participants agreed their smoking habit could lead to lung cancer. Lung cancer susceptibility testing may be a useful incentive to help people quit smoking. This study suggests the need for genetic services to work with smoking cessation teams if routine testing becomes available in the future.
KeywordsGenetic testing Attitude scales Lung cancer Smoking cessation Genetic counseling Genetic susceptibility testing Transtheoretical model
We would like to thank Dr Marion McAllister and Prof. Angus Clarke from Cardiff University for their advice and support in gaining ethical approval. We thank the Smoking Cessation Teams based at Cardiff, Newcastle-upon-Tyne and Middlesbrough for their support and enthusiasm in recruiting participants to this study, with particular thanks to Mrs Karen Heslop (Royal Victoria Infirmary, Newcastle), Ms Helen Poole & Dr Ramsey Sabit (University Hospital of Wales, Cardiff), and Mrs Gillian McIlhinney (James Cook University Hospital, Middlesbrough). We would finally like to thank the participants who completed and returned the questionnaires.
Conflict of Interest Statement
TK, AKF and KT declare that they have no conflict of interest.
All procedures followed were in accordance with the ethical standards of the responsible ommittee on human experimentation (institutional and national) and with the Helsinki Declaration of 1975, as revised in 2000.
- EU Council. (2001). Directive 2001/37/EC of the European Parliament and of the Council. L19426-19434.Google Scholar
- Her Majesty's Government. (2011). Healthy Lives, Healthy People: a Tobacco Control Plan for England. https://www.gov.uk/government/uploads/system/uploads/attachment_data/file/213757/dh_124960.pdf: Crown.
- Lerman, C., Gold, K., Audrain, J., Lin, T. H., Boyd, N. R., Orleans, C. T., et al. (1997). Incorporating biomarkers of exposure and genetic susceptibility into smoking cessation treatment: effects on smoking-related cognitions, emotions, and behavior change. Health Psychology, 16(1), 87–99.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Leventhal H, B. Y., Brownlee S. (1997). Illness representation: Theoretical foundations. In Perceptions of Health and Illness. Harwood Publishers: London.Google Scholar
- Marteau, T. M., French, D. P., Griffin, S. J., Prevost, A. T., Sutton, S., Watkinson, C., et al. (2010). Effects of communicating DNA-based disease risk estimates on risk-reducing behaviours. Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews(10). Google Scholar
- McBride, C. M., Bepler, G., Lipkus, I. M., Lyna, P., Samsa, G., Albright, J., et al. (2002). Incorporating genetic susceptibility feedback into a smoking cessation program for African-american smokers with low income. Cancer Epidemiology, Biomarkers & Prevention, 11(6), 521–528.Google Scholar
- Office of National Statistics. (2011). General Lifestyle Survey: Smoking and drinking among adults, 2009.Google Scholar
- Parkin, D., Bray, F., Ferlay, J., & Pisani, P. (2005). Global cancer statistics 2002. CA: a Cancer Journal for Clinicians, 55, 74–108.Google Scholar
- Peretti-Watel, P., & Constance, J. (2009). How do poor smokers justify smoking and what do they think about preventions? Deviance Et Societe, 33(2), 205–219.Google Scholar
- Peto, R., Lopez, A., Boreham, J., Thun, M., & Heath, J. C. (1994). Mortality from Smoking in Developed Countries 1950–2000. Oxford University PressGoogle Scholar
- Schneider, F., Gruman, J., & Coutts, L. (2005). Applied social psychology: understanding and addressing social and practical problems: Sage.Google Scholar
- Siahpush, M., McNeill, A., Hammond, D., & Fong, G. T. (2006). Socioeconomic and country variations in knowledge of health risks of tobacco smoking and toxic constituents of smoke: results from the 2002 International Tobacco Control (ITC) Four Country Survey. Tob Control, 15 Suppl 3, iii65-70.PubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar