Journal of Family Violence

, Volume 23, Issue 5, pp 377–385 | Cite as

Factors Associated with Separation and Ongoing Violence among Women with Civil Protective Orders

  • TK Logan
  • Robert Walker
  • Lisa Shannon
  • Jennifer Cole
Original Article

Abstract

This study examined a large sample of women recruited out of court at the time they received a civil protective order to better understand relationship status after obtaining a protective order (PO) and factors associated with protective order violations. Results are consistent with prior research suggesting that the protective order may be the impetus in separating from the abusive partner for some women, while for other women it is part of the separation process. Results also indicated that five out of ten women who did not continue a relationship experienced a violation while seven out of ten women who did continue a relationship with the PO partner experienced a violation. The majority of women felt safer and reported they believed the protective order was effective 13 months post-PO, regardless of relationship status. Furthermore, stalking played a significant role in separation from an abusive relationship and in protective order violations regardless of relationship status. Implications for practice and future research are discussed.

Keywords

Domestic violence Civil protective orders Separation Stalking Protective order violations 

Notes

Acknowledgements

The research for and preparation of this article were supported by the National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA) Grant Number AA12735-01 and the University of Kentucky General Clinical Research Organization funded by the National Institute of Health Grant #M01RR02602.

References

  1. Amato, P., & Rogers, S. (1997). A longitudinal study of marital problems and subsequent divorce. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 59, 612–124.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Arendell, T. (1995). Fathers & divorce. Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  3. Bradbury, T., & Lawrence, E. (1999). Physical aggression and the longitudinal course of newlywed marriage.. In X. Arriaga, & S. Oskamp (Eds.) Violence in intimate relationships (pp. 181–202). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  4. Campbell, J., Miller, P., Cardwell, M., & Belknap, R. (1994). Relationship status of battered women over time. Journal of Family Violence, 9(2), 99–111.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Campbell, J., Webster, D., Koziol-McLain, J., Block, C., Campbell, D., Curry, M., et al. (2003). Risk factors for femicide in abusive relationships: Results from a multi-site case control study. American Journal of Public Health, 93(7), 1089–1097.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  6. Carlson, M., Harris, S., & Holden, G. (1999). Protective orders and domestic violence: Risk factors for re-abuse. Journal of Family Violence, 14(2), 205–226.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. Chitwood, D., McBride, D., Metsch, L., Comerford, M., & McCoy, C. (1998). A comparison of the need for health care and use of health care by injection-drug users, other chronic drug users, and nondrug users. American Behavioral Scientist, 41(8), 1107–1122.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. Cole, J., Logan, T., & Shannon, L. (2006). Intimate sexual victimization among women with protective orders: Types and associations of physical and mental health problems. Violence and Victims, 20(6), 695–715.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. Dawson, M., & Gartner, R. (1998). Differences in the characteristics of intimate femicides: The role of relationship state and relationship status. Homicide Studies, 2(4), 378–399.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Eigenberg, H., McGuffee, K., Berry, P., & Hall, W. (2003). Protective order legislation: Trends in state statutes. Journal of Criminal Justice, 31, 411–422.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  11. Finn, P. (1989). Statutory authority in the use and enforcement of civil protection orders against domestic abuse. Family Law Quarterly, 23, 43–73.Google Scholar
  12. Gondolf, E., McWilliams, J., Hart, B., & Stuehling, J. (1994). Court response to petitions for civil protection orders. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 9(4), 503–517.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Harrell, A., & Smith, B. (1996). Effects of restraining orders on domestic violence victims. In E. Buzawa, & C. Buzawa (Eds.) Do arrests and restraining orders work? (pp. 214–242). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  14. Harrell, A., Smith, B., & Newmark, L. (1993). Court processing and the effects of restraining orders for domestic violence victims. Washington, DC: The Urban Institute.Google Scholar
  15. Holt, V., Kernic, M., Lumley, T., Wolf, M., & Rivara, F. (2002). Civil protection orders and risk of subsequent police-reported violence. Journal of the American Medical Association, 288(5), 589–594.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  16. Holt, V., Kernic, M., Wolf, M., & Rivara, F. (2003). Do protection orders affect the likelihood of future partner violence and injury. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 24(1), 16–21.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Hotaling, G., & Buzawa, E. (2003). Forgoing criminal justice assistance: The non-reporting of new incidents of abuse in a court sample of domestic violence victims. (NCJ 195667). US Department of Justice. Washington, DC: US Government Printing Office.Google Scholar
  18. Hutchison, I. (2003). Substance use and abused women’s utilization of the police. Journal of Family Violence, 18(2), 93–106.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Jacobson, N., Gottman, J., Gortner, E., Berns, S., & Shortt, J. (1996). Psychological factors in the longitudinal course of battering: When to couples split up? When does the abuse decrease? Violence and Victims, 11(4), 371–392.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  20. Keilitz, S., Hannaford, P., & Efkeman, H. (1997). Civil protection orders: The benefits and limitations for victims of domestic violence (Publication No. R-201). National Center for State Courts Research Report. Williamsburg, VA.Google Scholar
  21. Klein, A. (1996). Re-abuse in a population of court restrained male batterers: Why restraining orders don’t work. In E. Buzawa, & C. Buzawa (Eds.) Do arrests and restraining orders work? (pp. 192–213). Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage.Google Scholar
  22. Kurz, D. (1995). For richer, for poorer: Mothers confront divorce. New York, NY: Routledge.Google Scholar
  23. Kurz, D. (1996). Separation, divorce, and woman abuse. Violence Against Women, 2(1), 63–81.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Logan, T., & Cole, J. (2007). The impact of partner stalking on mental health and protective order outcomes over time. Violence and Victims, 22(5), 546–562.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Logan, T., Cole, J., Shannon, L., & Walker, R. (2006). Partner stalking: How women respond, cope, and survive. New York, NY: Springer Publishing Company.Google Scholar
  26. Logan, T., Cole, J., Shannon, L., & Walker, R. (2007). Relationship characteristics and protective orders among a diverse sample of women. Journal of Family Violence, 22, 237–246.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Logan, T., Shannon, L., & Cole, J. (2007). Stalking victimization in the context of intimate partner violence. Violence and Victims, 22(6), 669–683.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Logan, T., Shannon, L., & Walker, R. (2005). Protective orders in rural and urban area: a multiple perspective study. Violence Against Women, 11(7), 876–911.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Logan, T., Shannon, L., Walker, R., & Faragher, T. (2006). Protective orders: Questions and conundrums. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 7(3), 175–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Logan, T., Stevenson, E., Evans, L., & Leukefeld, C. (2004). Rural and urban women’s perceptions of barriers to health, mental health, & criminal justice services: implications for victims services. Violence and Victims, 19(1), 37–62.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  31. Logan, T., & Walker, R. (2008). Civil protective order outcomes: Violations and perceptions of effectiveness. Journal of Interpersonal Violence (in press).Google Scholar
  32. Logan, T., Walker, R., Cole, J., Ratliff, S., & Leukefeld, C. (2003). Qualitative differences among rural and urban intimate violence victimization experiences and consequences: A pilot study. Journal of Family Violence, 18(2), 83–92.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Logan, T., Walker, R., Jordan, C., & Campbell, J. (2004). An integrative review of separation and victimization among women: Consequences & Implications. Violence, Trauma, & Abuse, 5(2), 143–193.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  34. Logan, T., Walker, R., Jordan, C., & Leukefeld, C. (2006). Women and victimization: Contributing factors, interventions, and implications. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association Press.Google Scholar
  35. Logan, T., Walker, R., Shannon, L., & Cole, J. (2008). Combining ethical considerations with recruitment and follow-up strategies for partner violence victimization research. Violence Against Women (in press). Google Scholar
  36. McFarlane, J., Malecha, A., Gist, J., Watson, K., Batten, E., Hall, I., et al. (2004). Protection orders and intimate partner violence: An 18-month study of 150 black, Hispanic, and white women. American Journal of Public Health, 94(4), 613–618.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  37. McLellan, A., Luborsky, L., O’Brien, C., & Woody, G. (1980). An improved diagnostic instrument for substance abuse patients: The Addition Severity Index. Journal of Nervous and Mental Diseases, 168, 26–33.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  38. Rogge, R., & Bradbury, T. (1999). Till violence does us part: The differing roles of communication and aggression in predicting adverse marital outcomes. Journal of Consulting and Clinical Psychology, 67(3), 340–351.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  39. Sanchez, L., & Gager, C. (2000). Hard living, perceived entitlement to a great marriage, and marital dissolution. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 62, 708–722.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  40. Sev’er, A. (1997). Recent or imminent separation and intimate violence against women. Violence Against Women, 3(6), 566–589.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  41. Spitzberg, B. (2002). The tactical topography of stalking victimization and management. Trauma, Violence, & Abuse, 3(4), 261–288.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  42. Straus, M. (1995). Manual for the conflict tactics scale. Durham, NH: Family Research Laboratory, University of New Hampshire.Google Scholar
  43. Straus, M., & Gelles, R. (1990). Physical violence in American families: Risk factors and adaptations to violence in 8,145 families. New Brunswick, NJ: Transaction Publishers.Google Scholar
  44. Straus, M., Hamby, S., Boney-McCoy, S., & Sugarman, D. (1996). The revised conflict tactics scales (CTS2): Development and preliminary psychometric data. Journal of Family Issues, 17(3), 283–316.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  45. Swanberg, J., Macke, C., & Logan, T. (2007). Working women making it work: Intimate partner violence, employment, disclosure and workplace supports. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 22(3), 292–311.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  46. Testa, M., & Leonard, K. (2001). The impact of marital aggression on women’s psychological and marital functioning in a newlywed sample. Journal of Family Violence, 16(2), 115–130.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  47. Tjaden, P., & Thoennes, N. (2000). Extent, nature and consequences of intimate partner violence (NCJ 181867). Washington, DC: National Institute of Justice, Office of Justice Programs, US Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  48. Truman-Schram, D., Cann, A., Calhoun, L., & Vanwallendael, L. (2000). Leaving an abusive dating relationship: An investment model comparison of women who stay versus women who leave. Journal of Social and Clinical Psychology, 19(2), 161–183.Google Scholar
  49. Weisz, A., Tolman, R., & Bennett, L. (1998). An ecological study of nonresidential services for battered women within a comprehensive community protocol for domestic violence. Journal of Family Violence, 13(4), 395–415.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  50. Wilson, M., & Daly, M. (1993). Spousal homicide risk and estrangement. Violence and Victims, 8, 3–16.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  51. Wilson, M., Johnson, H., & Daly, M. (1995). Lethal and non-lethal violence against wives. Canadian Journal of Criminology, 37, 331–361.Google Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • TK Logan
    • 1
  • Robert Walker
    • 2
  • Lisa Shannon
    • 2
  • Jennifer Cole
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Behavioral ScienceUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

Personalised recommendations