Advertisement

Journal of Family Violence

, Volume 22, Issue 7, pp 563–574 | Cite as

Child–Parent Violence: An Empirical Analysis of Offender, Victim, and Event Characteristics in a National Sample of Reported Incidents

  • Jeffrey A. Walsh
  • Jessie L. Krienert
Original Article

Abstract

Child–parent violence (CPV) is arguably the most under-researched form of family violence, despite an extremely high rate of occurrence and increasing prevalence. Prior research has been plagued by shortcomings including, but not limited to, a reliance on small clinical samples, age parameter restrictions, antiquated data, undefined parental relationships, and conflicting findings across studies. The current research examined a large cross-national sample of reported offenders (n = 17,957), collected as part of the 2002 National Incident Based Reporting System (NIBRS). Extrapolated from past literature, victim and offender demographics and incident characteristics are analyzed using chi-square tests and logistic regression to establish baseline findings from a more comprehensive sample of data than previously existed. Aggregate results suggest, in part, that white biological mothers older than 40 years of age are most likely to be victimized by their male children 14–17 years of age. Further, a majority of assaults involve personal weapons and tend to result in minor injury or no injury with very few offenders under the influence of alcohol or drugs. This work both corroborates and contrasts past finding of CPV research providing new insights into this complex crime and the baseline data needed to inform theory and test hypotheses.

Keywords

Child–parent violence Parental abuse Battered parent syndrome Violence Juveniles 

Notes

Acknowledgment

The opinions expressed herein are solely the authors’ and do not reflect the opinions or official position of any other individuals or organizations. We wish to thank the editor and reviewers for their helpful comments.

References

  1. Agnew, R., & Huguley, S. (1989). Adolescent violence toward parents. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 51(3), 699–711.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Anderson, E. (1999). Code of the street: Decency, violence, and the moral life of the inner city. New York: W.W. Norton.Google Scholar
  3. Baumer, E. P. (2002). Neighborhood disadvantage and police notification by victims of violence. Criminology, 40(3), 579–616.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. Brezina, T. (1999). Tenage violence toward parents as an adaptation to family strain: Evidence from a national survey of male adolescents. Youth & Society, 30, 416–444.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. Charles, A. V. (1986). Physically abused parents. Journal of Family Violence, 1(4), 343–355.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  6. Cochran, D., Brown, M. E., Adams, S. L., & Doherty, D. (1994). Young adolescent batterers: A profile of restraining order defendants in Massachusetts. Boston: Office of the Commissioned on Probation.Google Scholar
  7. Cornell, C. P., & Gelles, R. J. (1982). Adolescent to parent violence. The Urban and Social Change Review, 15, 8–14.Google Scholar
  8. Cottrell, B. (2001). Parent abuse: The abuse of parents by their teenage children. Retrieved from http://www.canadiancrc.com/parent_abuse.htm.
  9. Cottrell, B., & Monk, P. (2004). Adolescent-to-parent abuse: A qualitative overview of common themes. Journal of Family Issues, 25(8), 1072–1095.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  10. Dugas, M., Mouren, M. C., & Halfon, O. (1985). Les parents battus et leurs enfants (Battered parents and their children). Psychiatrie de l'Enfant, 28, 185–219.Google Scholar
  11. Ellickson, P. L., & McGuigan, K. (2000). Early predictors of adolescent violence. American Journal of Public Health, 90(4), 566–572.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. Evans, E. D., & Warren-Sohlberg, L. (1988). A pattern analysis of adolescent abusive behavior towards parents. Journal of Adolescent Research, 3(2), 201–216.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. Federal Bureau of Investigation (1992). Uniform crime reporting guide, NIBRS edition. Washington, DC: U.S. Department of Justice.Google Scholar
  14. Gallagher, E. (2004a). Parents victimised by their children. ANZJFT, 25(1), 1–12.Google Scholar
  15. Gallagher, E. (2004b). Youth who victimise their parents. ANZJFT, 25(2), 94–105.Google Scholar
  16. Gelles, R. J. (1985). Family violence. Annual Review of Sociology, 11, 347–367.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  17. Grama, J. L. (2000). Women forgotten: Difficulties faced by rural victims of domestic violence. American Journal of Family Law, 14, 173–189.Google Scholar
  18. Harbin, H., & Madden, D. (1979). Battered parents: a new syndrome. American Journal of Psychiatry, 136, 1288–1291.PubMedGoogle Scholar
  19. Hemenway, D., Stith-Prothrow, D., Bergstein, J. M., Ander, R., & Kennedy, B. P. (1996). Gun carrying among adolescents. Law and Contemporary Problems, 59(1), 39–53.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  20. Hotaling, G. T., Straus, M. A., & Lincoln, A. J. (1989). Intrafamily violence, and crime and violence outside the family. In L. Ohlin & M. Tonry (Eds.), Family violence. Crime and justice: a review of research, vol. 11 (pp. 315–375). Chicago: University of Chicago Press.Google Scholar
  21. Jackson, D. (2003). Broadening constructions of family violence: Mothers’ perspectives of aggression from their children. Child and Family Social Work, 8, 321–329.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Kethineni, S. (2004). Youth-on-parent violence in a central Illinois county. Youth Violence and Juvenile Justice, 2(4), 374–394.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Kratcoski, P. (1985). Youth violence directed at significant others.Journal of Adolescence, 8, 145–157.Google Scholar
  24. Laurent, A., & Derry, A. (1999). Violence of French adolescents toward their parents’. Journal of Adolescent Health, 25(1), 21–26.Google Scholar
  25. McCloskey, L. A., & Lichter, E. L. (2003). The contribution of marital violence to adolescent aggression across different relationships. Journal of Interpersonal Violence, 18(4), 390–412.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Nock, M. K., & Kazdin, A. E. (2002). Parent-directed physical aggression by clinic-referred youths. Journal of Clinical Child Psychology, 31(2), 193–205.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Pagani, L. S., Tremblay, R. E., Nagin, D., Zoccolillo, M., Vitaro, F., & McDuff, P. (2004). Risk factors models for adolescent verbal and physical aggression toward mothers. International Journal of Behavioral Development, 28(6), 528–537.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  28. Paulson, M. J., Coombs, R. H., & Landsverk, J. (1990). Youth who physically assault their parents. Journal of Family Violence, 5, 121–133.Google Scholar
  29. Peek, C. W., Fischer, J. L., & Kidwell, J. S. (1985). Teenage violence toward parents: A neglected dimension of family violence. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 47(4), 1051–1058.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. Pelletier, D., & Coutu, S. (1992). Substance abuse and family violence in adolescents. Canada’s Mental Health, 40, 6–12.Google Scholar
  31. Robinson, P. W., Davidson, L. J., & Drebot, M. E. (2004). Parent abuse on the rise: A historical review. American Association of Behavioral Science (online journal), pp. 58–67.Google Scholar
  32. Straus, M. A., & Stewart, J. H. (1999). Corporal punishment by American parents: National data on prevalence, chronicity, severity, and duration, in relation to child, and family characteristics. Clinical Child and Family Psychology Review, 2, 55–70.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  33. Straus, M. A., Gelles, R. J., & Steinmetz, S. K. (1980). Behind closed doors: Violence in the American family. New York: Doubleday.Google Scholar
  34. Ulman, A., & Straus, M. A. (2003). Violence by children against mothers in relation to violence between parents and corporal punishment by parents. Journal of Comparative Family Studies, 34(1), 41–60.Google Scholar
  35. Websdale, N. S., & Johnson, B. (1998). An ethnostatistical comparison of the forms and levels of women battering in urban and rural areas of Kentucky. iminal Justice Review, 23(2), 161–196.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Department of Criminal Justice SciencesIllinois State UniversityNormalUSA

Personalised recommendations