Desi ghee, obtained by buffalo and cow milk, is highly expensive because it contains valuable vitamins and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Its high demand and cost result in to its adulteration with inferior banaspati ghee. In this study, Fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis has been utilised for the detection and quantification of adulteration. Spectroscopic analysis showed that buffalo ghee contains more vitamins and CLA than cow, whereas cow ghee is enriched with beta-carotene. For multivariate analysis, principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLSR) have been applied on the spectral data for the determination of adulteration. PLSR model was authenticated by predicting 23 unknown samples including 3 commercial brands of desi ghee. The root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of unknown samples was found to be 1.7 which is a reasonable value for quantitative prediction. Due to non-destructive and requiring no sample pre-treatment, this method can effectively be employed as on line characterization tool for the food safety assurance.
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Author is obliged to Pakistan Science Foundation for providing funding for the development of fluorosensor through PSF/Res/C-NILOP/Phys (183), Dr. Naveed Ahmed, Assistant professor at MUST, Mirpur, Pakistan for providing pure ghee samples and Mr. Muhammad Irfan, SA-2, for giving assistant in measuring the fluorescence spectra from samples used in the study.
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Saleem, M. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Based Detection of Adulteration in Desi Ghee. J Fluoresc (2020) doi:10.1007/s10895-019-02483-0
- Fluorescence spectroscopy
- Buffalo/cow ghee
- Banaspati ghee
- Ghee adulteration
- Principal component analysis (PCA)
- Partial least square regression (PLSR)