Fluorescence Spectroscopy Based Detection of Adulteration in Desi Ghee

  • 11 Accesses


Desi ghee, obtained by buffalo and cow milk, is highly expensive because it contains valuable vitamins and conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). Its high demand and cost result in to its adulteration with inferior banaspati ghee. In this study, Fluorescence spectroscopy along with multivariate analysis has been utilised for the detection and quantification of adulteration. Spectroscopic analysis showed that buffalo ghee contains more vitamins and CLA than cow, whereas cow ghee is enriched with beta-carotene. For multivariate analysis, principle component analysis (PCA) and partial least square regression (PLSR) have been applied on the spectral data for the determination of adulteration. PLSR model was authenticated by predicting 23 unknown samples including 3 commercial brands of desi ghee. The root mean square error in prediction (RMSEP) of unknown samples was found to be 1.7 which is a reasonable value for quantitative prediction. Due to non-destructive and requiring no sample pre-treatment, this method can effectively be employed as on line characterization tool for the food safety assurance.

This is a preview of subscription content, log in to check access.

Access options

Buy single article

Instant unlimited access to the full article PDF.

US$ 39.95

Price includes VAT for USA

Subscribe to journal

Immediate online access to all issues from 2019. Subscription will auto renew annually.

US$ 99

This is the net price. Taxes to be calculated in checkout.

Fig. 1
Fig. 2
Fig. 3
Fig. 4
Fig. 5
Fig. 6
Fig. 7
Fig. 8
Fig. 9


  1. 1.

    Ganguli NC, Jain MK (1973) Ghee: its chemistry, processing and technology. J Dairy Sci 56:19–25

  2. 2.

    Ahmad N, Saleem M (2019) Raman spectroscopy based characterization of desi ghee obtained from buffalo and cow milk. Int Dairy J 89:119–128

  3. 3.

    Ahmad N, Saleem M (2019) Characterization of desi ghee obtained from different extraction methods using Raman spectroscopy. Spectrochim Acta - Part A Mol Biomol Spectrosc 223:117311

  4. 4.

    Sserunjogi ML, Abrahamsen RK, Narvhus J (1998) A review paper: current knowledge of ghee and related products. Int Dairy J 8:677–688

  5. 5.

    Ullah R, Khan S, Ali H et al (2017) Identification of cow and buffalo milk based on Beta carotene and vitamin-a concentration using fluorescence spectroscopy. PLoS One 12:e0178055

  6. 6.

    Raynal-Ljutovac K, Lagriffoul G, Paccard P et al (2008) Composition of goat and sheep milk products: an update. Small Rumin Res 79:57–72

  7. 7.

    Olson JA (1989) Provitamin a function of carotenoids: the conversion of β-carotene into vitamin a. J Nutr 119:105–108

  8. 8.

    King JM, White PJ (1999) Impact of processing on formation of trans fatty acids. Adv Exp Med Biol 459:51–65

  9. 9.

    Shabir A (2016) Process line of cooking oil and vegetable ghee (Vanaspati) and their analysis during processing. Res Rev J Food Dairy Technol 4:1–7

  10. 10.

    Muthanna MC, Mukerji B (1940) Detection of adulteration in “ghee” (clarified butter) by the ultra-violet fluorescence technique. Curr Sci 9:120–122

  11. 11.

    Jirankalgikar NM, De S (2014) Detection of tallow adulteration in cow ghee by derivative spectrophotometry. J Nat Sci Biol Med 5:317–319

  12. 12.

    Ayari F, Mirzaee-Ghaleh E, Rabbani H, Heidarbeigi K (2018) Detection of the adulteration in pure cow ghee by electronic nose method (case study: sunflower oil and cow body fat). Int J Food Prop 21:1670–1679

  13. 13.

    Ahmad N, Saleem M (2018) Studying heating effects on desi ghee obtained from buffalo milk using fluorescence spectroscopy. PLoS One 13:e0197340

  14. 14.

    Ali H, Nawaz H, Saleem M et al (2016) Qualitative analysis of desi ghee, edible oils, and spreads using Raman spectroscopy. J Raman Spectrosc 47:706–711

  15. 15.

    Saleem M, Ahmad N, Ali H et al (2017) Investigating temperature effects on extra virgin olive oil using fluorescence spectroscopy. Laser Phys 27:125602

  16. 16.

    Sikorska E, Khmelinskii IV, Sikorski M et al (2008) Fluorescence spectroscopy in monitoring of extra virgin olive oil during storage. Int J Food Sci Technol 43:52–61

  17. 17.

    Zandomeneghi M, Laura Carbonaro A, Caffarata C (2005) Fluorescence of vegetable oils: olive oils. J Agric Food Chem 53:759–766

  18. 18.

    Albani J-R (2012) Fluorescence spectroscopy in food analysis. In: Encyclopedia of Analytical Chemistry. Chichester, UK

  19. 19.

    Andersen CM, Mortensen G (2008) Fluorescence spectroscopy: a rapid tool for analyzing dairy products. J Agric Food Chem 56:720–729

  20. 20.

    Christensen J, Povlsen VT, Sørensen J (2003) Application of fluorescence spectroscopy and Chemometrics in the evaluation of processed cheese during storage. J Dairy Sci 86:1101–1107

  21. 21.

    Karoui R, Blecker C (2011) Fluorescence spectroscopy measurement for quality assessment of food systems—a review. Food Bioprocess Technol 4:364–386

  22. 22.

    Shaikh S, O’Donnell C (2017) Applications of fluorescence spectroscopy in dairy processing: a review. Curr Opin Food Sci 17:16–24

  23. 23.

    Ali H, Saleem M, Anser MR et al (2018) Validation of fluorescence spectroscopy to detect adulteration of edible oil in extra virgin olive oil (EVOO) by applying Chemometrics. Appl Spectrosc 72:1371–1379

  24. 24.

    Bansal S, Singh A, Mangal M et al (2017) Food adulteration: sources, health risks, and detection methods. Crit Rev Food Sci Nutr 57:1174–1189

  25. 25.

    Mu T, Chen S, Zhang Y et al (2016) Portable detection and quantification of olive oil adulteration by 473-nm laser-induced fluorescence. Food Anal Methods 9:275–279

  26. 26.

    Ntakatsane MP, Liu XM, Zhou P (2013) Short communication: rapid detection of milk fat adulteration with vegetable oil by fluorescence spectroscopy. J Dairy Sci 96:2130–2136

  27. 27.

    Cherry RJ, Chapman D, Langelaar J (1968) Fluorescence and phosphorescence of beta-carotene. Trans Faraday Soc 64:2304–2307

  28. 28.

    Tang G (2010) Bioconversion of dietary provitamin a carotenoids to vitamin a in humans. Am J Clin Nutr 91:1468S–1473S

  29. 29.

    Ménard O, Ahmad S, Rousseau F et al (2010) Buffalo vs. cow milk fat globules: size distribution, zeta-potential, compositions in total fatty acids and in polar lipids from the milk fat globule membrane. Food Chem 120:544–551

  30. 30.

    Chinnadurai K, Kanwal H, Tyagi A et al (2013) High conjugated linoleic acid enriched ghee (clarified butter) increases the antioxidant and antiatherogenic potency in female Wistar rats. Lipids Health Dis 12:121

  31. 31.

    Ahmad N, Saleem M, Atta BM, Mahmood S (2019) Characterization of Desi ghee extracted by different methods using fluorescence spectroscopy. J Fluoresc 29:1411–1421

  32. 32.

    Lever J, Krzywinski M, Altman N (2017) Points of significance: principal component analysis. Nat Methods 14:641–642

  33. 33.

    Kongbonga YGM (2011) Characterization of vegetable oils by fluorescence spectroscopy. Food Nutr Sci 02:692–699

  34. 34.

    Rosipal R, Krämer N (2006) Overview and recent advances in partial least squares. Springer, Berlin, Heidelberg, pp 34–51

  35. 35.

    Thomas EV, Haaland DM (1990) Comparison of multivariate calibration methods for quantitative spectral analysis. Anal Chem 62:1091–1099

  36. 36.

    Jha SN, Garg R (2010) Non-destructive prediction of quality of intact apple using near infrared spectroscopy. J Food Sci Technol 47:207–213

  37. 37.

    Cantor SL, Hoag SW, Ellison CD et al (2011) NIR spectroscopy applications in the development of a compacted multiparticulate system for modified release. AAPS PharmSciTech 12:262–278

Download references


Author is obliged to Pakistan Science Foundation for providing funding for the development of fluorosensor through PSF/Res/C-NILOP/Phys (183), Dr. Naveed Ahmed, Assistant professor at MUST, Mirpur, Pakistan for providing pure ghee samples and Mr. Muhammad Irfan, SA-2, for giving assistant in measuring the fluorescence spectra from samples used in the study.

Author information

Correspondence to M. Saleem.

Ethics declarations

Conflict of Interest

There is no conflict of interest.

Additional information

Publisher’s Note

Springer Nature remains neutral with regard to jurisdictional claims in published maps and institutional affiliations.

Rights and permissions

Reprints and Permissions

About this article

Verify currency and authenticity via CrossMark

Cite this article

Saleem, M. Fluorescence Spectroscopy Based Detection of Adulteration in Desi Ghee. J Fluoresc (2020) doi:10.1007/s10895-019-02483-0

Download citation


  • Fluorescence spectroscopy
  • Buffalo/cow ghee
  • Banaspati ghee
  • Ghee adulteration
  • Principal component analysis (PCA)
  • Partial least square regression (PLSR)