Nitrogen-Doped Durian Shell Derived Carbon Dots for Inner Filter Effect Mediated Sensing of Tetracycline and Fluorescent Ink
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Photoluminescent carbon dots have gained increasing attention in recent years due to their unique optical properties. Herein, a facile one-pot hydrothermal process is used to develop nitrogen-doped carbon dots (NCDs) with durian shell waste as the precursor and Tris base as the doping agent. The synthesized NCDs showed a quantum yield of 12.93% with a blue fluorescence under UV-light irradiation and maximum emission at 414 nm at an excitation wavelength of 340 nm. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectroscopy showed the presence of nitrogen and oxygen functional groups on the NCD surface. The particles were quasi-spherical with an average particle diameter of 6.5 nm. The synthesized NCDs were resistant to photobleaching and stable under a wide range of pH but were negatively affected by increasing temperature. NCDs showed high selectivity to Tetracycline as the fluorescence of NCDs was quenched significantly by Tetracycline as a result of the inner filter effect. Based on sensitivity experiments, a linear relationship (R2 = 0.989) was developed over a concentration range of 0–30 μM with a detection limit of 75 nM (S/N = 3). The linear model was validated with two water samples (lake water and tap water) with relative recoveries of 98.6–108.5% and an RSD of <3.5%.
KeywordsCarbon dots Durian shell waste Nitrogen doping Fluorescent ink Tetracycline detection
The authors would like to thank Interdisciplinary Graduate school of Nanyang Technological University and Nanyang Environment & Water Research Institute for the financial support extended to this study. We would like to acknowledge the Facility for Analysis, Characterization, Testing and Simulation, Nanyang Technological University, Singapore, for use of their transmission electron microscopy facilities.
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