Journal of Fluorescence

, Volume 16, Issue 3, pp 461–468 | Cite as

Er, Yb Doped Yttrium Based Nanosized Phosphors: Particle Size, “Host Lattice” and Doping Ion Concentration Effects on Upconversion Efficiency

  • Ana Maria Pires
  • Stephan Heer
  • Hans Ulrich Güdel
  • Osvaldo Antonio SerraEmail author
Original Paper


The upconverter phosphors studied herein have different percentages of Er3+ and Yb3+ as doping ions in different Y3+ matrixes (Y2O3, Y2O2S), and were prepared from different precursors (polymeric resin, oxalate, basic carbonate) and method (combustion). Upconversion emission spectra were recorded at 298 K for all the doped samples in the visible region, for efficiency and Green/Red emission relative intensity comparisons. Therefore, an investigation of the influence of the doping ion concentration, particle size and host lattice on the upconversion process is provided in view of the UPT (Upconverting phosphor technology application). On the basis of the results, it was possible to evaluate the best combination for a specific assay, considering whether it is advantageous to have the greatest contribution from the green or red emissions, or from both in comparable intensities.


Upconversion Rare earth Phosphor UPT Nanoparticles. 



AMP and OAS are grateful to FAPESP for financial support.


  1. 1.
    Niedbala RS, Feindt H, Kardos K, Vail T, Burton J, Bielska B, Li S, Milunic D, Bourdelle P, Vallejo R (2001) Detection of analytes by immunoassay using up-converting phosphor technology. Anal Biochem 293:22–30PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. 2.
    Zarling DA, Rossi MJ, Peppers NA, Kane J, Faris GW, Dyer MJ, Gregory San W, Ng SY, Schneider LV (1997) Up-converting reporters for biological and other assays using laser excitation techniques. US patent 5,674,698Google Scholar
  3. 3.
    Pires AM, Serra OA, Davolos MR (2005) Morphological and luminescent studies on nanosized Er, Yb-Yttrium oxide upconverter prepared from different precursors. J Lumin 113:174–182CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    Vetrone F, Boyer JC, Capobianco JA, Speghini A, Bettinelli M (2004) Significance of Yb3+ concentration on the upconversion mechanisms in codoped Y2O3:Er3+,Yb3+ nanocrystals. J Appl Phys 96:661–667CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    Pires AM, Heer S, Güdel HU, Serra OA (2005) Low temperature upconversion spectroscopy of nanosized Y2O3:Er,Yb phosphor. J Appl Phys 98:063529-1-7Google Scholar
  6. 6.
    Pires AM, Serra OA, Davolos MR (2004) Yttrium oxysulfide nanosized spherical particles doped with Yb and Er or Yb and Tm: efficient materials for up-converting phosphor technology field. J Alloys Compd 374:181–184CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  7. 7.
    Dammak M, Maalej R, Kamoun M, Deschanvres JL (2003) Crystal field analysis of erbium doped yttrium oxide thin films in C-2 and C-3i sites. Phys Stat Sol B-Bas Res 239:193–202CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  8. 8.
    Tanner PA, Wong KL (2004) Synthesis and spectroscopy of lanthanide ion-doped Y2O3. J. Phys. Chem. B 108:136–142CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    Mikami M, Nakamura S (2002) Lattice dynamics and dielectric properties of yttrium oxysulfide. Phys Rev B 65(094302):1–4Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    Gamelin DR, Güdel HU (2000) Upconversion process in transition metal and rare earth metal systems. In: Topics in current chemistry, vol. 214, Springer-Verlag, Berlin HeidelbergGoogle Scholar
  11. 11.
    Georgobiani AN, Gruzintsev AN, Barthou C, and Benalloul P (2004) Infrared luminescence Y2O2S:Er3+ andY2O3: Er3+. Inorg Mat 40:840–844CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  12. 12.
    Song H, Sun B, Wang T, Lu S, Yang L, Chen B, Wang X, Kong X (2004) Three-photon upconversion luminescence phenomenon for the green levels in Er3+/Yb3+ codoped cubic nanocrystalline yttria. Sol Stat Commun 132:409–413CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    da Vila LD, Stucchi EB, Davolos MR (1997) Preparation and characterization of uniform, spherical particles of Y2O2S and Y2O2S:Eu. J Mater Chem 7:2113–2116CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Maria Pires
    • 1
  • Stephan Heer
    • 2
  • Hans Ulrich Güdel
    • 2
  • Osvaldo Antonio Serra
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Departamento de Química, FFCLRPUniversidade de São PauloRibeirão PretoBrazil
  2. 2.Department of Chemistry and BiochemistryUniversity of BernBerneSwitzerland

Personalised recommendations