Enhanced Fluorescence from Periodic Arrays of Silver Nanoparticles
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Electron beam lithography was used to fabricate silver nanoparticle arrays and study the effects of geometrical properties of particles on metal-enhanced fluorescence. Nanoparticle size, shape, interparticle spacing, and nominal thickness were varied in a combinatorial pattern for investigation of the particle plasmon resonance effect on enhancement of fluorescence from three different fluorophores; Fluorescein, Cy3, and Cy5. A specific geometric property for optimal enhancement from each fluorophore was determined. For interparticle spacings greater or equal to 270 nm, the enhancement matched what is expected for a single-particle model. For those particles smaller than 210 nm, the enhancement was lower than for the larger spacing in the range studied. Triangular-shaped particles gave similar enhancement to those of square-shaped particles. This combinatorial pattern by e-beam lithography was found to be useful for studying how individual parameters enhance the fluorescence that are important for rational design of enhanced fluorescence sensors.