Journal of Fluorescence

, Volume 16, Issue 1, pp 119–139 | Cite as

Use of Fluorescence Probes for Detection of Reactive Nitrogen Species: A Review

  • Ana Gomes
  • Eduarda Fernandes
  • José L. F. C. Lima
Original Article

The biological and toxicological effects that have been attributed to reactive nitrogen species (RNS) are increasingly stirring the scientific inquisitiveness about the molecular mechanisms involved. However, RNS present some characteristics that complicate their detection, namely their short lifetime and the normal presence of a variety of endogenous compounds capable of reacting with these reactive species, when the studies are performed in biological matrices. The development of methodologies capable of circumvent these difficulties is thus of fundamental importance. Fluorescence probes are particularly important due to their high sensibility and usefulness in temporal and spatial monitoring of RNS, particularly in microanalysis conditions in biological media akin to cells or tissues. In the present review is given an account of the fluorescence probes that have been used for detection of nitric oxide (NO), peroxynitrite anion (ONOO), as well as of some of its derivatives in biological and nonbiological media.

KEY WORDS:

Reactive nitrogen species nitric oxide peroxynitrite fluorescence probes antioxidant oxidative stress scavenging activity free radicals 

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, Inc. 2006

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ana Gomes
    • 1
  • Eduarda Fernandes
    • 1
  • José L. F. C. Lima
    • 1
  1. 1.REQUIMTE, Departamento de Química-Fisica, Faculdade de FarmáciaUniversidade do PortoPortoPortugal

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