Journal of Fusion Energy

, Volume 35, Issue 1, pp 54–62 | Cite as

Controlling Fusion Yield in Tokamaks with Spin Polarized Fuel, and Feasibility Studies on the DIII-D Tokamak

  • D. C. Pace
  • M. J. Lanctot
  • G. L. Jackson
  • A. M. Sandorfi
  • S. P. Smith
  • X. Wei
Original Research


The march towards electricity production through tokamaks requires the construction of new facilities and the inevitable replacement of the previous generation. There are, however, research topics that are better suited to the existing tokamaks, areas of great potential that are not sufficiently mature for implementation in high power machines, and these provide strong support for a balanced policy that includes the redirection of existing programs. Spin polarized fusion, in which the nuclei of tokamak fuel particles are spin-aligned and favorably change both the fusion cross-section and the distribution of initial velocity vectors of charged fusion products, is described here as an example of a technological and physics topic that is ripe for development in a machine such as the DIII-D tokamak. Such research and development experiments may not be efficient at the ITER-scale, while the plasma performance, diagnostic access, and collaborative personnel available within the United States’ magnetic fusion research program, and at the DIII-D facility in particular, provide a unique opportunity to further fusion progress.


Spin polarized fusion Magnetic confinement fusion  Tokamak High temperature plasma diagnostics Fusion research policy 



This work was supported in part by General Atomics Internal Research and Development Funding and in part by the United States Department of Energy, Office of Nuclear Physics Division, under contract DE-AC05-06OR23177 under which Jefferson Science Associates operates Jefferson Laboratory. The authors would like to thank J. D. King for his time in discussing analysis related to this manuscript.


  1. 1.
    J. Wesson, Tokamaks. International Series of Monographs on Physics, 4th edn. (Oxford Science Publications, Oxford, 2011)Google Scholar
  2. 2.
    J. Luxon, Nucl. Fusion 42(5), 614 (2002)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  3. 3.
    R.M. Kulsrud, H.P. Furth, E.J. Valeo, M. Goldhaber, Phys. Rev. Lett. 49, 1248 (1982)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  4. 4.
    R. Kulsrud, E. Valeo, S. Cowley, Nucl. Fusion 26(11), 1443 (1986)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  5. 5.
    H. Paetz gen. Schieck, Eur. Phys. J. A 44(2), 321 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  6. 6.
    P. Finn, J. Brooks, D. Ehst, Y. Gohar, R. Mattas, C. Baker, Fusion Sci. Technol. 10, 902 (1986)Google Scholar
  7. 7.
    P. Finn, J. Brooks, D. Ehst, Y. Gohar, R. Mattas, C. Baker, ANL/FPP-85-1, Report DE86-007949 (1985)Google Scholar
  8. 8.
    M. Greenwald, A. Bader, S. Baek, M. Bakhtiari, H. Barnard, W. Beck, W. Bergerson, I. Bespamyatnov, P. Bonoli, D. Brower, D. Brunner, W. Burke, J. Candy, M. Churchill, I. Cziegler, A. Diallo, A. Dominguez, B. Duval, E. Edlund, P. Ennever, D. Ernst, I. Faust, C. Fiore, T. Fredian, O. Garcia, C. Gao, J. Goetz, T. Golfinopoulos, R. Granetz, O. Grulke, Z. Hartwig, S. Horne, N. Howard, A. Hubbard, J. Hughes, I. Hutchinson, J. Irby, V. Izzo, C. Kessel, B. LaBombard, C. Lau, C. Li, Y. Lin, B. Lipschultz, A. Loarte, E. Marmar, A. Mazurenko, G. McCracken, R. McDermott, O. Meneghini, D. Mikkelsen, D. Mossessian, R. Mumgaard, J. Myra, E. Nelson-Melby, R. Ochoukov, G. Olynyk, R. Parker, S. Pitcher, Y. Podpaly, M. Porkolab, M. Reinke, J. Rice, W. Rowan, A. Schmidt, S. Scott, S. Shiraiwa, J. Sierchio, N. Smick, J.A. Snipes, P. Snyder, B. Sorbom, J. Stillerman, C. Sung, Y. Takase, V. Tang, J. Terry, D. Terry, C. Theiler, A. Tronchin-James, N. Tsujii, R. Vieira, J. Walk, G. Wallace, A. White, D. Whyte, J. Wilson, S. Wolfe, G. Wright, J. Wright, S. Wukitch, S. Zweben, Phys. Plasmas (1994-present) 21(11), 110501 (2014)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  9. 9.
    D. Hill, The DIII-D Team, Nucl. Fusion 53(10), 104001 (2013)Google Scholar
  10. 10.
    J. Menard, S. Gerhardt, M. Bell, J. Bialek, A. Brooks, J. Canik, J. Chrzanowski, M. Denault, L. Dudek, D. Gates, N. Gorelenkov, W. Guttenfelder, R. Hatcher, J. Hosea, R. Kaita, S. Kaye, C. Kessel, E. Kolemen, H. Kugel, R. Maingi, M. Mardenfeld, D. Mueller, B. Nelson, C. Neumeyer, M. Ono, E. Perry, R. Ramakrishnan, R. Raman, Y. Ren, S. Sabbagh, M. Smith, V. Soukhanovskii, T. Stevenson, R. Strykowsky, D. Stutman, G. Taylor, P. Titus, K. Tresemer, K. Tritz, M. Viola, M. Williams, R. Woolley, H. Yuh, H. Zhang, Y. Zhai, A. Zolfaghari, The NSTX team, Nucl. Fusion 52(8), 083015 (2012)Google Scholar
  11. 11.
    O. Motojima for the ITER Organization, ITER Domestic Agencies, ITER collaborators, 24th international conference on fusion energy, paper OV/1-1, San Diego, 2012Google Scholar
  12. 12.
    P. Politzer, G. Jackson, D. Humphreys, T. Luce, A. Hyatt, J. Leuer, Nucl. Fusion 50(3), 035011 (2010)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  13. 13.
    A. Sandorfi, Plans for a direct in situ measurement of fuel polarization survival in the DIII-D tokamak plasma. Presented at the European centre for theoretical studies in nuclear physics and related areas, workshop on nuclear fusion with polarized nucleons, Trento, Italy, 14–15 Nov 2013
  14. 14.
  15. 15.
    E. Synakowski, FES Considerations for Strategic Planning. Presented at the University fusion associates meeting at the 56th annual meeting of the APS division of plasma physics, New Orleans, Oct 27, 2014.
  16. 16.
  17. 17.
    Facilitating Interdisciplinary Research, The National Academies Press, Washington, 2004.
  18. 18.
    G. Holton, H. Chang, E. Jurkowitz, Am. Sci. 84(4), 364 (1996)ADSGoogle Scholar
  19. 19.
    A. Sandorfi et al. Nucl. Fusion in preparation (2015)Google Scholar
  20. 20.
    L.R. Baylor, N. Commaux, T.C. Jernigan, N.H. Brooks, S.K. Combs, T.E. Evans, M.E. Fenstermacher, R.C. Isler, C.J. Lasnier, S.J. Meitner, R.A. Moyer, T.H. Osborne, P.B. Parks, P.B. Snyder, E.J. Strait, E.A. Unterberg, A. Loarte, Phys. Rev. Lett. 110, 245001 (2013)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  21. 21.
    W.W. Heidbrink, M.E. Austin, C.S. Collins, T. Gray, B.A. Grierson, G.J. Kramer, M. Lanctot, D.C. Pace, M.A.Van Zeeland, and A.G. Mclean, Nucl. Fusion 55, 083023 (2015)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  22. 22.
    L. Giancarli, O. Bede, S. Beloglazov, M. Benchikhoune, K. Chang, V. Chuyanov, G. Dell’Orco, J. Friconneau, S. Gicquel, C. Gliss, C. Hansalia, M. Iseli, C. Kim, I. Kuehn, B. Levesy, F. Maluta, M. Merola, R. Pascal, L. Patisson, G. Rigoni, J. Snipes, A. Tesini, I. Yonekawa, Fusion Eng. Des. 85(1012), 1829 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. 23.
    L.L. Lao, H.E.S. John, Q. Peng, J.R. Ferron, E.J. Strait, T.S. Taylor, W.H. Meyer, C. Zhang, K.I. You, Fusion Sci. Technol. 48(2), 968 (2005)Google Scholar
  24. 24.
    H.S. John, J. Ferron, L. Lao, T. Osborne, S. Thompson, D. Wroblewski. Proceedings of the 15th international conference on plasma physics and controlled nuclear fusion research, Seville (1994) (IAEA, Vienna, 1995), Vol. 3, p. 603Google Scholar
  25. 25.
    H.S. Bosch, G. Hale, Nucl. Fusion 32(4), 611 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  26. 26.
    L. Baylor, T. Jernigan, R. Colchin, G. Jackson, L. Owen, T. Petrie, J. Nucl. Mater. 313316, 530 (2003)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  27. 27.
    K.H. Burrell, W.P. West, E.J. Doyle, M.E. Austin, T.A. Casper, P. Gohil, C.M. Greenfield, R.J. Groebner, A.W. Hyatt, R.J. Jayakumar, D.H. Kaplan, L.L. Lao, A.W. Leonard, M.A. Makowski, G.R. McKee, T.H. Osborne, P.B. Snyder, W.M. Solomon, D.M. Thomas, T.L. Rhodes, E.J. Strait, M.R. Wade, G. Wang, L. Zeng, Phys. Plasmas 12(5), 056121 (2005)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  28. 28.
    M.A. Van Zeeland, W.W. Heidbrink, R.K. Fisher, M. García-Muñoz, G.J. Kramer, D.C. Pace, R.B. White, S. Aekaeslompolo, M.E. Austin, J.E. Boom, I.G.J. Classen, S. da Graça, B. Geiger, M. Gorelenkova, N.N. Gorelenkov, A.W. Hyatt, N. Luhmann, M. Maraschek, G.R. McKee, R.A. Moyer, C.M. Muscatello, R. Nazikian, H. Park, S. Sharapov, W. Suttrop, G. Tardini, B.J. Tobias, Y.B. Zhu, DIII-D, ASDEX upgrade teams. Phys. Plasmas 18(5), 056114 (2011)Google Scholar
  29. 29.
    R.K. Fisher, D.C. Pace, M. García-Muñoz, W.W. Heidbrink, C.M. Muscatello, M.A. Van Zeeland, Y.B. Zhu, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 81(10), 10D307 (2010)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  30. 30.
    X. Chen, R.K. Fisher, D.C. Pace, M. García-Muñoz, J.A. Chavez, W.W. Heidbrink, M.A.V. Zeeland, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 83(10), 10D707 (2012)Google Scholar
  31. 31.
    R.V. Perez, W.U. Boeglin, D.S. Darrow, M. Cecconello, I. Klimek, S.Y. Allan, R.J. Akers, D.L. Keeling, K.G. McClements, R. Scannell, M. Turnyanskiy, A. Angulo, P. Avila, O. Leon, C. Lopez, O.M. Jones, N.J. Conway, C.A. Michael, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 85(11), 11D701 (2014)CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  32. 32.
    G. Pacher, H. Pacher, G. Janeschitz, A. Kukushkin, Nucl. Fusion 48(10), 105003 (2008)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  33. 33.
    L. Garzotti, P. Belo, G. Corrigan, F. Köchl, J. Lönnroth, V. Parail, G. Pereverzev, S. Saarelma, G. Tardini, M. Valovič, I. Voitsekhovitch, S. Wiesen, Nucl. Fusion 52(1), 013002 (2012)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  34. 34.
    H.S. Greenside, R.V. Budny, D.E. Post, J. Vac. Sci. Technol. A 2(2), 619 (1984)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  35. 35.
    G.L. Jackson, J. Winter, T.S. Taylor, K.H. Burrell, J.C. DeBoo, C.M. Greenfield, R.J. Groebner, T. Hodapp, K. Holtrop, E.A. Lazarus, L.L. Lao, S.I. Lippmann, T.H. Osborne, T.W. Petrie, J. Phillips, R. James, D.P. Schissel, E.J. Strait, A.D. Turnbull, W.P. West, D.D. Team, Phys. Rev. Lett. 67, 3098 (1991)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  36. 36.
    G.L. Jackson, J. Winter, T.S. Taylor, C.M. Greenfield, K.H. Burrell, T.N. Carlstrom, J.C. DeBoo, E.J. Doyle, R.J. Groebner, L.L. Lao, C. Rettig, D.P. Schissel, E.J. Strait, The DIIID Research Team, Phys. Fluids B 4(7), 2181 (1992)CrossRefADSGoogle Scholar
  37. 37.
    An interview with ITER director-general Bernard Bigot. ITER Newsline, Mar 6, 2015.

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2015

Authors and Affiliations

  • D. C. Pace
    • 1
  • M. J. Lanctot
    • 1
  • G. L. Jackson
    • 1
  • A. M. Sandorfi
    • 2
  • S. P. Smith
    • 1
  • X. Wei
    • 2
  1. 1.General AtomicsSan DiegoUSA
  2. 2.Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator FacilityNewport NewsUSA

Personalised recommendations