Journal of Fusion Energy

, Volume 27, Issue 3, pp 206–215

Time-dependent Neutronic Analysis for High Level Waste Transmutation in a Fusion-driven Transmuter

Original Paper

Abstract

This study presents time-dependent transmutations of high-level waste (HLW) including minor actinides (MAs) and long-lived fission products (LLFPs) in the fusion-driven transmuter (FDT) that is optimized in terms of the neutronic performance per fusion neutron in our previous study. Its blanket has two different transmutation zones (MA transmutation zone, TZMA, and LLFP transmutation zone, TZFP), located separately from each other. High burn-up pressured water reactor (PWR)-mixed oxide (MOX) spent fuel is used as HLW. The time-dependent transmutation analyses have been performed for an operation period (OP) of up to 10 years by 75% plant factor (η) under a first-wall neutron load (P) of 5 MW/m2. The effective half-lives of the MA and LLFP nuclides can be shortened significantly in the considered FDT while substantial electricity is produced in situ along the OP.

Keywords

Fusion reactors Fusion-driven transmuters Minor actinides Long-lived fission products Time-dependent transmutation 

Nomenclature

A

Area (cm2)

CE

Energy conversion factor (1.6021 × 10−19 MWs/MeV)

Cm

Ratio of atomic mass to N0 (g/atom)

E

Neutron energy (MeV)

Ef

Energy per fission (200 MeV)

keff

Neutron multiplication coefficient

M

Blanket energy multiplication factor

m

Mass (kg)

n

Neutron

N

Atomic density (atoms/cm3)

Na

Avogadro number (6.023 × 1023 atom/mol)

Nx

Transmuted density of nuclide by x reaction (atom/cm3)

P

First-wall neutron load (MW/m2)

Pth

Thermal power production (GWth)

Rx

x-Reaction rate (reactions/s)

RxD

x-Reaction rate density (reactions/cm3/s)

t

Time (year)

T

Total operation time (year)

T1/2

Half-life (year)

T6

Tritium breeding ratio from 6Li

T7

Tritium breeding ratio from 7Li

V

Volume (cm3)

VF

Volume fraction (%)

Abbreviations

BOP

Beginning of operation period

BU

Fuel burn-up (GWd/tHM)

B/T

Burning and/or transmutation

C/C

Carbon/carbon

D–T

Deuterium–tritium

EC

Electron capture

EOP

End of operation period

FDT

Fusion-driven transmuter

FW

First-wall

HLW

High-level waste

LLFP

Long-lived fission product

MA

Minor actinide

MOX

Mixed oxide

NMZ

Neutron multiplier zone

OP

Operation period

PWR

Pressured water reactor

RZ

Reflector zone

SZ

Shielding zone

TBR

Tritium breeding ratio

TBZ

Tritium breeding zone

TF

Transmutation fraction

TR

Transmutation rate (kg/GWth year)

TRU

Transuranium

TZ

Transmutation zone

Greek

α

Alpha particle

β

Beta decay

\( \phi \)

Neutron flux (n cm−2 s−1)

γ

Capture

η

Plant factor

λ

Decay constant (1/year)

μ

Volume fraction

ρ

Density (g/cm3)

σ

Microscopic cross-section (cm2)

Δt

Discrete time interval

Φ

Number of fusion neutron per second

Γ

Peak-to-average fission power density ratio

Subscripts

a

Absorption reaction

c

Capture reaction

dep

Depleted

f or F

Fission

fuel

Fuel

FP

Long-lived fission product

fw

First-wall

i

Daughter nuclide

j

Mother nuclide

ji

From j to i

Li2O

Lithium oxide

MA

Minor actinide

max

Maximum

x

Transmutation reaction type (one of a, c and f reactions or F)

Superscript

eff

Effective

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2007

Authors and Affiliations

  1. 1.Mühendislik FakültesiErciyes ÜniversitesiKayseriTurkey

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