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Do Helicoverpa armigera Moths Signal Their Fecundity by Emission of an Antagonist?

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Abstract

Female Helicoverpa armigera emit a pheromone, comprised of a 98:2 ratio of (Z)-11-hexadecenal to (Z)-9-hexadecenal, to attract males. It has been proposed that “immature” female H. armigera modulate attraction of males by emitting an antagonist, (Z)-11-hexadecenol, along with pheromone during the first two nights of calling. However, it is unclear why females would call and simultaneously release pheromone and an antagonist. We conducted observations of female calling during the first five nights after adult emergence to determine periodicity. We also measured the relative abundance of (Z)-11-hexadecenol to the major component, (Z)-11-hexadecenal, on the surface of the gland of calling females and compared it to the ratio of these two compounds inside the gland over the first three nights after adult emergence to determine how much antagonist may be released. We found that young females (< 1-d-old) are unlikely to call and, based on the relative proportion of (Z)-11-hexadecenol on the gland surface, even if they did call would be unlikely to release sufficient (Z)-11-hexadecenol to diminish male attraction.

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Acknowledgments

This work was funded in part by United States Department of Agriculture-Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service grants (to RTC). We are grateful to Dr. Allard Cossé of APHIS for facilitating funding, Prof. Myron Zalucki of the University of Queensland for providing H. armigera eggs, Lucio Rodriguez for assisting in wind-tunnel assays, and Dr. Emerson Lacey for his assistance in maintaining our colony and conducting observations of calling moths. Prof. Stephen Foster of North Dakota State University provided very useful comments on our study.

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Correspondence to Gabriel P. Hughes.

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Hughes, G.P., Cardé, R.T. Do Helicoverpa armigera Moths Signal Their Fecundity by Emission of an Antagonist?. J Chem Ecol 46, 21–29 (2020). https://doi.org/10.1007/s10886-019-01132-x

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Keywords

  • Pheromone
  • Antagonist
  • Calling behavior
  • SPME
  • Pheromone gland extract