(Z)-7-Hexadecene is an Aggregation-Sex Pheromone Produced by Males of the South American Cerambycid Beetle Susuacanga octoguttata
We describe the identification, synthesis, and field bioassays of a novel aggregation-sex pheromone produced by males of Susuacanga octoguttata (Germar), a South American cerambycid beetle. Analyses of extracts of headspace volatiles produced by adult beetles revealed a sex-specific compound emitted by males which was identified as (Z)-7-hexadecene by microchemical and spectroscopic analyses. The synthesized pheromone was attractive to beetles of both sexes in field trials. This unsaturated hydrocarbon motif is unprecedented among cerambycid pheromones identified to date. During field bioassays, we serendipitously discovered that adults of S. octoguttata trapped in two Brazilian biomes differed considerably in elytral markings, although males from both populations produced (Z)-7-hexadecene as an aggregation-sex pheromone.
KeywordsSemiochemical Longhorned beetle Pheromone chemistry Phenotypic plasticity Local adaptation
A special thank you to Araci R. and Cassio D. Silva for their invaluable help in field bioassays and to Antonio Santos-Silva (Museu de Zoologia da Universidade de São Paulo) for identifying the cerambycid beetle species. We gratefully acknowledge financial support from Fundação de Amparo à Pesquisa do Estado de São Paulo (FAPESP, grant #2013/26923-2) to WDS, USDA-APHIS (grant #15-8130-1422-CA) to JGM and LMH, and the Alphawood Foundation to LMH. This work also was supported by INCT-Semioquímicos na Agricultura (FAPESP and CNPq - grants #2014/50871-0 and #465511/2014-7, respectively). Field collections of the cerambycid beetles were conducted under the SISBIO permit n° #46395-2 from the Brazilian Ministry of the Environment.
- Linsley EG (1959) Ecology of Cerambycidae. Annu Rev Entomol 4:99–138. https://doi.org/10.1146/annurev.en.04.010159.000531 CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Martins UR (1999) Tribo Eburiini Blanchard, 1845. In: Martins UR (ed) Cerambycidae Sul-Americanos (Coleoptera): taxonomia, vol 3. Sociedade Brasileira de Entomologia, São Paulo, pp 119–391 (in Portuguese)Google Scholar
- McDonald JH (2014) Handbook of biological statistics, 3rd edn. Sparky House Publishing, BaltimoreGoogle Scholar
- Millar JG, Hanks LM (2017) Chemical ecology of cerambycids. In: Wang Q (ed) Cerambycidae of the world: biology and pest management. CRC Press. Taylor & Francis, Boca Raton, pp 167–202Google Scholar
- Monné MA (2018) Catalogue of the Cerambycidae (Coleoptera) of the Neotropical region. Part I: subfamily Cerambycinae http://cerambyxcat.com/Parte1_Cerambycinae_2018.pdf. Accessed 24 July 2018
- Newcombe RG (1998) Two-sided confidence intervals for the single proportion: comparison of seven methods. Stat Med 17:857–872. https://doi.org/10.1002/(SICI)10970258(19980430)17:8<857::AID-SIM777>3.0.CO;2-E CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- SAS Institute (2011) SAS/STAT 9.3 user’s guide. SAS Institute Inc., CaryGoogle Scholar
- Sokal RR, Rohlf FJ (1995) Biometry, 3rd edn. W. H. Freeman, New YorkGoogle Scholar
- Tippmann FF (1960) Studien über neotropische longicornier III. Koleopterologische Rundschau 37-38:82–217 (in German)Google Scholar