Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 43, Issue 11–12, pp 1046–1055 | Cite as

Use of Mixture Designs to Investigate Contribution of Minor Sex Pheromone Components to Trap Catch of the Carpenterworm Moth, Chilecomadia valdiviana

  • Stephen L. LapointeEmail author
  • Wilson Barros-Parada
  • Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras
  • Heidy Herrera
  • Takeshi Kinsho
  • Yuki Miyake
  • Randall P. Niedz
  • Jan BergmannEmail author


Field experiments were carried out to study responses of male moths of the carpenterworm, Chilecomadia valdiviana (Lepidoptera: Cossidae), a pest of tree and fruit crops in Chile, to five compounds previously identified from the pheromone glands of females. Previously, attraction of males to the major component, (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienal, was clearly demonstrated while the role of the minor components was uncertain due to the use of an experimental design that left large portions of the design space unexplored. We used mixture designs to study the potential contributions to trap catch of the four minor pheromone components produced by C. valdiviana. After systematically exploring the design space described by the five pheromone components, we concluded that the major pheromone component alone is responsible for attraction of male moths in this species. The need for appropriate experimental designs to address the problem of assessing responses to mixtures of semiochemicals in chemical ecology is described. We present an analysis of mixture designs and response surface modeling and an explanation of why this approach is superior to commonly used, but statistically inappropriate, designs.


Geometric mixture designs Response surface modeling (7Z,10Z)-7,10-hexadecadienal Lepidoptera Cossidae 



Financial support from Fondo Nacional de Desarrollo Científico y Tecnológico (grant 1140779 to JB) is gratefully acknowledged. HH thanks Comisión Nacional de Investigación Científica y Tecnológica for a doctoral fellowship (21130375). USDA is an equal opportunity provider and employer. Mention of a trademark or proprietary product does not constitute a guarantee or warranty of the product by the United States Department of Agriculture and does not imply its approval to the exclusion of other products that may also be suitable.

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Copyright information

© This is a U.S. government work and its text is not subject to copyright protection in the United States; however, its text may be subject to foreign copyright protection 2017

Authors and Affiliations

  • Stephen L. Lapointe
    • 1
    Email author
  • Wilson Barros-Parada
    • 2
    • 3
  • Eduardo Fuentes-Contreras
    • 2
  • Heidy Herrera
    • 4
  • Takeshi Kinsho
    • 5
  • Yuki Miyake
    • 5
  • Randall P. Niedz
    • 1
  • Jan Bergmann
    • 4
    Email author
  1. 1.United States Horticultural Research Laboratory, U.S. Department of Agriculture, Agricultural Research ServiceFt. PierceUSA
  2. 2.Millenium Nucleus Center in Molecular Ecology and Evolutionary Applications in the Agroecosystems (CEM), Facultad de Ciencias AgrariasUniversidad de TalcaTalcaChile
  3. 3.Escuela de AgronomíaPontificia Universidad Católica de ValparaísoQuillotaChile
  4. 4.Instituto de QuímicaPontificia Universidad Católica de ValparaísoValparaísoChile
  5. 5.Shin-Etsu Chemical Co. LtdTokyoJapan

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