Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 42, Issue 6, pp 490–496 | Cite as

Interaction of Visual and Chemical CUES in Promoting Attraction of Agrilus planipennis

  • Michael J. DomingueEmail author
  • Stefanos S. Andreadis
  • Peter J. Silk
  • Krista L. Ryall
  • Thomas C. Baker


Female emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emit a macrocyclic lactone, (Z)-3-dodecen-12-olide, that increases field trap captures on large-panel prism traps when co-emitted with the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. We assessed attraction to these compounds by using visual decoy-baited branch traps, which attract males by mimicking a living female resting upon a leaf. Pairs of branch traps, with and without visual decoy beetles, were placed on green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees, which were assigned different odor treatments: 1) no odor, 2) (Z)-3-hexenol alone, and 3) (Z)-3-hexenol-plus-lactone. Male captures were positively affected by the presence of decoys and the emission of either (Z)-3-hexenol or (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone. The decoy-baited traps with the combination of (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone caught more males than any other treatment. Greater male captures were associated with continuing captures later in the season, suggesting that decoy and odor attractants remain attractive throughout the flight period. Female captures were not affected by the visual decoys, but odors did influence captures, with the (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone treatment catching the greatest number of females. The rare female trap captures were negatively correlated with the more common male captures on the odorless and (Z)-3-hexenol-baited traps, but were not correlated with male captures when the lactone was added. Thus, in the absence of the lactone, the visual signal of other conspecifics can inhibit female attraction. However, the pheromone attracts both sexes independently of the visual signal on the trap.


Emerald ash borer Flight Lactone Invasive species Mate search Trapping Coleoptera Buprestidae 



We thank Dr. Kim Steiner and Jennifer Berkebile of the Penn State Department of Forestry for assistance in providing information about the experimental plot. Loyal Hall and Kevin Cloonan of the Penn State Department of Entomology and Haibin Chen of Wenzhou Medical University, China assisted in trap collection. Lucas Roscoe of Natural Resources Canada provided useful suggestions for the initial manuscript of this work. The work was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service program supporting the Development of Detection Tools for Exotic Buprestid Beetles (12-8130-1430-CA). We thank CFS and ACOA-AIF, Canada for partial funding to PS and KR.

Supplementary material

10886_2016_706_Fig4_ESM.gif (61 kb)
Supplementary Figure 1

Decoy-baited branch trap, one of which has several Agrilus planipennis adults ensnared (a), and another showing a (Z)-3-hexenol packet attached below the trap surface (b). (GIF 60 kb)

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High Resolution Image (TIFF 915 kb)
10886_2016_706_Fig5_ESM.gif (1 kb)
Supplementary Figure 2

Graphical depiction of the experimental plot on the Pennsylvania State University campus in University Park, PA, (40°48′31.5″N 77°50′25.1″W, 318 m altitude). The locations of living Fraxinus trees are marked with a zero. Empty spaces indicate positions where trees were not planted or have died since the beginning if the Agrilus planipennis infestation. Red boxes are overlaid above trees where traps were deployed. Within each group of two or three trees circled, different odor treatments were always deployed. Traps were rotated twice within the groups of three and between the groups of two as further described in the text. (GIF 792 bytes)

10886_2016_706_MOESM2_ESM.tif (394 kb)
High Resolution Image (TIFF 393 kb)


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2016

Authors and Affiliations

  • Michael J. Domingue
    • 1
    Email author
  • Stefanos S. Andreadis
    • 1
  • Peter J. Silk
    • 2
  • Krista L. Ryall
    • 3
  • Thomas C. Baker
    • 1
  1. 1.Department of EntomologyPennsylvania State UniversityUniversity ParkUSA
  2. 2.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceFrederictonCanada
  3. 3.Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest ServiceSault Ste. MarieCanada

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