Interaction of Visual and Chemical CUES in Promoting Attraction of Agrilus planipennis
- 383 Downloads
Female emerald ash borers, Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), emit a macrocyclic lactone, (Z)-3-dodecen-12-olide, that increases field trap captures on large-panel prism traps when co-emitted with the green leaf volatile (Z)-3-hexenol. We assessed attraction to these compounds by using visual decoy-baited branch traps, which attract males by mimicking a living female resting upon a leaf. Pairs of branch traps, with and without visual decoy beetles, were placed on green ash, Fraxinus pennsylvanica, trees, which were assigned different odor treatments: 1) no odor, 2) (Z)-3-hexenol alone, and 3) (Z)-3-hexenol-plus-lactone. Male captures were positively affected by the presence of decoys and the emission of either (Z)-3-hexenol or (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone. The decoy-baited traps with the combination of (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone caught more males than any other treatment. Greater male captures were associated with continuing captures later in the season, suggesting that decoy and odor attractants remain attractive throughout the flight period. Female captures were not affected by the visual decoys, but odors did influence captures, with the (Z)-3-hexenol plus lactone treatment catching the greatest number of females. The rare female trap captures were negatively correlated with the more common male captures on the odorless and (Z)-3-hexenol-baited traps, but were not correlated with male captures when the lactone was added. Thus, in the absence of the lactone, the visual signal of other conspecifics can inhibit female attraction. However, the pheromone attracts both sexes independently of the visual signal on the trap.
KeywordsEmerald ash borer Flight Lactone Invasive species Mate search Trapping Coleoptera Buprestidae
We thank Dr. Kim Steiner and Jennifer Berkebile of the Penn State Department of Forestry for assistance in providing information about the experimental plot. Loyal Hall and Kevin Cloonan of the Penn State Department of Entomology and Haibin Chen of Wenzhou Medical University, China assisted in trap collection. Lucas Roscoe of Natural Resources Canada provided useful suggestions for the initial manuscript of this work. The work was funded by the United States Department of Agriculture, Animal and Plant Health Inspection Service program supporting the Development of Detection Tools for Exotic Buprestid Beetles (12-8130-1430-CA). We thank CFS and ACOA-AIF, Canada for partial funding to PS and KR.
- Domingue MJ, Lakhtakia A, Pulsifer DP, Hall LP, Badding JV, Bischof JL, Martín-Palmad RJ, Imrei Z, Janik G, Mastro VC, Hazen M, Baker TC (2014) Bioreplicated visual features of nanofabricated buprestid beetle decoys evoke stereotypical male mating flights. Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 111:14106–14111CrossRefPubMedPubMedCentralGoogle Scholar
- Francese JA, Mastro VC, Oliver JB, Lance DR, Youssef N, Lavallee SG (2005) Evaluation of colors for trapping Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae). J Entomol Sci 40:93–95Google Scholar
- Haack RA, Jendek E, Liu H, Marchant KR, Petrice TR, Poland TM, Ye H (2002) The emerald ash borer: a new exotic pest in North America. Newsl Mich Entomol Soc 47:1–5Google Scholar
- Lelito JP, Fraser I, Mastro VC, Tumlinson JH, Böröczky K, Baker TC (2007) Visually mediated ‘paratrooper copulations’ in the mating behavior of Agrilus planipennis (Coleoptera: Buprestidae), a highly destructive invasive pest of north American ash trees. J Insect Behav 20:537–552CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Rodriguez-Saona C, Poland TM, Miller JR, Stelinski LL, Grant GG, DeGroot P, Buchan L, MacDonald L (2006) Behavioral and electrophysiological responses of the emerald ash borer, Agrilus planipennis, to induced plant volatiles of Manchurian ash, Fraxinus mandshurica. Chemoecology 16:75–86CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Silk PJ, Ryall K, Mayo P, Lemay MA, Grant G, Crook D, Cossé A, Fraser I, Sweeney JD, Lyons DB, Pitt D, Scarr T, Magee D (2011) Evidence for a volatile pheromone in Agrilus planipennis Fairmaire (Coleoptera: Buprestidae) that increases attraction to a host foliar volatile. Environ Entomol 40:904–916CrossRefPubMedGoogle Scholar
- Steiner KC, Williams MW, DeHayes DH, Hall RB, Eckert RT, Bagley WT, Lemmien WA, Karnosky DF, Carter KK, Cech FC (1988) Juvenile performance in a range-wide provenance test of Fraxinus pennsylvanica marsh. Silvae Genet 37:104–111Google Scholar