Differential Sequestration of a Cytotoxic Vismione from the Host Plant Vismia baccifera by Periphoba arcaei and Pyrrhopyge thericles
We sought to compare the abilities of the specialist Lepidoptera Pyrrhopyge thericles (Hesperiidae) and the generalist Periphoba arcaei (Saturniidae) to assimilate three highly cytotoxic compounds from their larval host plant, Vismia baccifera (Clusiaceae) and to determine whether either insect discriminated in its assimilation of the compounds that are structurally similar but of variable cytotoxicity. Vismione B (1), deacetylvismione A (2), and deacetylvismione H (3) are cytotoxic compounds isolated from V. baccifera. Compound 1 was found in the 2nd and 3rd instars of P. arcaei, but not in the mature larvae or the pupae. Pyrrhopyge thericles assimilated trace quantities of compound 1 and deacetylvismione A (2), which were both found in the 3rd and 4th instars. In extracts of V. baccifera, compound 2 is present at levels approximately 6-fold greater than compound 1, indicating that the generalist P. arcaei is capable of selectively sequestering cytotoxic compounds from its host plant. Compounds 1 and 2 show comparable cytotoxicities in three different cancer cell lines, suggesting that properties other than cytotoxicity are responsible for the selective sequestration of 1 by P. arcaei. This study represents the first time that sequestration of this class of compounds has been recorded in the Lepidoptera.
KeywordsCytotoxic Sequestration Aposematic Clusiaceae Lepidoptera Saturniidae Hesperiidae
We thank the Organization of American States, and the Office Québec- Amériques pour la Jeunesse for support for C.R.H. and the Fogarty International Center’s International Cooperative Biodiversity Groups program (ICBG TW006634). We also thank two anonymous reviewers for their constructive comments on the original manuscript.
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