Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 40, Issue 8, pp 882–892 | Cite as

Field Evaluation of the Bacterial Volatile Derivative 3-Pentanol in Priming for Induced Resistance in Pepper

  • Hye Kyung Choi
  • Geun Cheol Song
  • Hwe-Su Yi
  • Choong-Min RyuEmail author


Plants are defended from attack by emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) that can act directly against pathogens and herbivores or indirectly by recruiting natural enemies of herbivores. However, microbial VOC have been less investigated as potential triggers of plant systemic defense responses against pathogens in the field. Bacillus amyloliquefaciens strain IN937a, a plant growth-promoting rhizobacterium that colonizes plant tissues, stimulates induced systemic resistance (ISR) via its emission of VOCs. We investigated the ISR capacity of VOCs and derivatives collected from strain IN937a against bacterial spot disease caused by Xanthomonas axonopodis pv. vesicatoria in pepper. Of 15 bacterial VOCs and their derivatives, 3-pentanol, which is a C8 amyl alcohol reported to be a component of sex pheromones in insects, was selected for further investigation. Pathogens were infiltrated into pepper leaves 10, 20, 30, and 40 days after treatment and transplantation to the field. Disease severity was assessed 7 days after transplantation. Treatment with 3-pentanol significantly reduced disease severity caused by X. axonopodis and naturally occurring Cucumber mosaic virus in field trials over 2 years. We used quantitative real-time polymerase chain analysis to examine Pathogenesis-Related genes associated with salicylic acid (SA), jasmonic acid (JA), and ethylene defense signaling. The expression of Capsicum annuum Pathogenesis-Related protein 1 (CaPR1), CaPR2, and Ca protease inhibitor2 (CaPIN2) increased in field-grown pepper plants treated with 3-pentanol. Taken together, our results show that 3-pentanol triggers induced resistance by priming SA and JA signaling in pepper under field conditions.


3-Pentanol Pepper Defense priming ISR PGPR Systemic acquired resistance Volatile organic compound 



Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria


Induced systemic resistance


Volatile organic compound



We thank Dr. Doil Choi for providing the bacterial X. axonopodis strain. Financial support was obtained from the Industrial Source Technology Development Program of the Ministry of Knowledge Economy (10044909) of Korea, the Next-Generation BioGreen 21 Program (SSAC grant #PJ009524), Rural Development Administration, S. Korea, and the KRIBB initiative program, South Korea.


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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2014

Authors and Affiliations

  • Hye Kyung Choi
    • 1
  • Geun Cheol Song
    • 1
    • 3
  • Hwe-Su Yi
    • 1
    • 2
  • Choong-Min Ryu
    • 1
    • 3
  1. 1.Molecular Phytobacteriology Laboratory, Super-Bacteria Research CenterKRIBBDaejeonSouth Korea
  2. 2.School of Life ScienceKyungpook National UniversityDaeguSouth Korea
  3. 3.Biosystems and Bioengineering ProgramUniversity of Science and TechnologyDaejeonSouth Korea

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