Sex-Specific Trail Pheromone Mediates Complex Mate Finding Behavior in Anoplophora glabripennis
- 583 Downloads
Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) is a polyphagous member of the Cerambycidae, and is considered, worldwide, to be one of the most serious quarantine pests of deciduous trees. We isolated four chemicals from the trail of A. glabripennis virgin and mated females that were not present in trails of mature males. These compounds were identified as 2-methyldocosane and (Z)-9-tricosene (major components), as well as (Z)-9-pentacosene and (Z)-7-pentacosene (minor components); every trail wash sample contained all four chemical components, although the amounts and ratios changed with age of the female. Males responded to the full pheromone blend, regardless of mating status, but virgin females chose the control over the pheromone, suggesting that they may use it as a spacing pheromone to avoid intraspecific competition and maximize resources. Virgin, but not mated, males also chose the major pheromone components in the absence of the minor components, over the control. Taken together, these results indicate that all four chemicals are components of the trail pheromone. The timing of production of the ratios of the pheromone blend components that produced positive responses from males coincided with the timing of sexual maturation of the female.
KeywordsSex trail pheromone Invasive species 2-Methyldocosane (Z)-9-Tricosene (Z)-9-Pentacosene (Z)-7-Pentacosene Mate finding Coleaptera Cerambycidae
We thank J. Nie of the United States Department of Agriculture (USDA) Invasive Insect Behavior and Biocontrol Laboratory for assistance with chemical analysis and syntheses, and G. Bradford and V. Sánchez of the USDA Forest Service for assistance in rearing beetles. Funding was provided by grants to KH from the USDA Northeastern Area, State and Private Forestry (10-CA-11420004-316), the Alphawood Foundation, and the Horticultural Research Institute.
- Bordereau C, Pasteels JM (2011) Pheromones and chemical ecology of dispersal and foraging in termites. In: Bignell YR DE, Lo N (eds) Biology of termites: a modern synthesis. Springer, Netherlands, pp 279–320Google Scholar
- He P, Huang J (1993) Adult behavior of Anoplophora glabripennis (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). Acta Entomologocal Sinica 36:51–55Google Scholar
- Li D, Liu Y (1997) Correlations between sexual development, age, maturation feeding, and mating of adult Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) (Coleoptera: Cerambycidae). J Northwest For Coll 12:19–23Google Scholar
- Li D, Tokoro M, Nacashima T (1999) Mechanism of adult action and mating in Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.). J Beijing For Univ 21:33–36Google Scholar
- Li JG, Jin YJ, Luo YQ, Shen YB, Chen HJ (2002) Comparative analysis of volatile compounds from different host plants of Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.). J Beijing For Univ 24:165–169 [In Chinese]Google Scholar
- Maercher A (1965) The Wittig Reaction. In: Cope AC (ed) Organic reactions, vol 14. Wiley, New York, pp 270–490Google Scholar
- R Core Team (2012) R: A language and environment for statistical computing. R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. http://www.R-project.org/
- Wen JB, Luo YQ, Yue JM, Liu RG (1999) The attracting effect of Acer negundo Linn. on Anoplophora glabripennis (Motsch.) adults. For Pest Dis 18:17–20 [In Chinese]Google Scholar
- Yasui H, Yasuda T, Fukaya M, Akino T, Wakamura S, Hirai Y, Kawasaki K, Ono H, Narahara M, Kousa K, Fukuda T (2007) Host plant chemicals serve intraspecific communication in the white-spotted longicorn beetle, Anoplophora malasiaca (Thomson) (Coleoptera : Cerambycidae). Appl Entomol Zool 42:255–268CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Zhang A, Oliver JE, Aldrich JR, Wang BD, Mastro VC (2002) Stimulatory beetle volatiles for the Asian longhorned beetle, Anoplophora glabripennis (Motschulsky). Z Naturforsch C 57:553–558Google Scholar