Epicuticular Compounds of Drosophila subquinaria and D. recens: Identification, Quantification, and Their Role in Female Mate Choice
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- Curtis, S., Sztepanacz, J.L., White, B.E. et al. J Chem Ecol (2013) 39: 579. doi:10.1007/s10886-013-0284-1
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The epicuticle of various Drosophila species consists of long-chain cuticular hydrocarbons (CHCs) and their derivatives that play a role in waterproofing and a dynamic means of chemical communication. Here, via gas chromatography and mass spectrometry, we identified and quantified the epicuticular composition of D. recens and D. subquinaria, two closely related species that show a pattern of reproductive character displacement in nature. Twenty-four compounds were identified with the most abundant, 11-cis-Vaccenyl acetate, present only in males of each species. Also exclusive to males were five tri-acylglycerides. The 18 remaining compounds were CHCs, all shared between the sexes and species. These CHCs were composed of odd carbon numbers (C29, C31, C33, and C35), with an increase in structural isomers in the C33 and C35 groups. Saturated hydrocarbons comprise only methyl-branched alkanes and were found only in the C29 and C31 groups. Alkenes were the least prevalent, with alkadienes dominating the chromatographic landscape in the longer chain lengths. Sexual dimorphism was extensive with 6/8 of the logcontrast CHCs differing significantly in relative concentration between males and females in D. recens and D. subquinaria, respectively. Males of the two species also differed significantly in relative concentration of six CHCs, while females differed in none. Female-choice mating trials revealed directional sexual selection on male CHCs in a population of each species, consistent with female mate preferences for these traits. The sexual selection vectors differed significantly in multivariate trait space, suggesting that different pheromone blends determine male attractiveness in each species.