Synthetic Cis-Jasmone Exposure Induces Wheat and Barley Volatiles that Repel the Pest Cereal Leaf Beetle, Oulema melanopus L.
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The plant semiochemical cis-jasmone primes/induces plant resistance that deters herbivores and attracts natural enemies. We studied the induction of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in winter wheat and spring barley after exposure of plants to three synthetic cis-jasmone doses (50 μl of 1, 100, and 1 × 104 ng μl−1) and durations of exposure (1, 3, and 6 h). Cereal leaf beetle, Oulema melanopus, adult behavioral responses were examined in a Y-tube olfactometer to cis-jasmone induced plant VOC bouquets and to two synthetic blends of VOCs (3 green leaf volatiles (GLVs); 4 terpenes + indole). In both cereals, eight VOCs [(Z)-3-hexanal, (Z)-3-hexanol, (Z)-3-hexanyl acetate, (Z)-β-ocimene, linalool, β-caryophyllene, (E)-ß–farnesene, and indole] were induced 100- to 1000-fold after cis-jasmone exposure. The degree of induction in both cereals was usually positively and linearly associated with increasing exposure dose and duration. However, VOC emission rate was only ~2-fold greater from plants exposed to the highest vs. lowest cis-jasmone exposure doses (1 × 104 difference) or durations (6-fold difference). Male and female O. melanopus were deterred by both cereal VOC bouquets after plant exposure to the high cis-jasmone dose (1 × 104 ng μl−1), while females were also deterred after plant exposure to the low dose (1 ng μl−1) but attracted to unexposed plant VOC bouquets. Both O. melanopus sexes were repelled by terpene/indole and GLV blends at two concentrations (25 ng · min−1; 125 ng · min−1), but attracted to the lowest dose (1 ng · min−1) of a GLV blend. It is possible that the biologically relevant low cis-jasmone dose has ecological activity and potential for inducing field crop VOCs to deter O. melanopus.
KeywordsHordeum vulgare Triticum aestivum cis-jasmone Volatile Cereal leaf beetle Induction
We thank R.B. Srygley for performing the ARS paper review, as well as two anonymous reviewers for providing comments that improved previous drafts of this manuscript. This research was partly supported with funds provided by the Ministry of Science and Higher Education (contract number 1648/B/P01/2010/39 entitled, ‘Effect of volatile organic compounds released by green and floral parts of Brassica napus on behavior of Meligethes aeneus F.
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