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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 38, Issue 11, pp 1358–1365 | Cite as

Synergy Versus Potency in the Defensive Secretions from Nymphs of two Pentatomomorphan Families (Hemiptera: Coreidae and Pentatomidae)

  • Dorit EliyahuEmail author
  • Roxanne A. Ceballos
  • Vahid Saeidi
  • Judith X. Becerra
Article

Abstract

One characteristic of true bugs (Heteroptera) is the presence of dorsal abdominal glands in the immature nymphal stages. These glands usually produce defensive chemicals (allomones) that vary among taxa but are still similar in closely related groups. Knowledge of the chemistry and prevalence of allomones in different taxa may clarify the evolution of these chemical defensive strategies. Within the infraorder Pentatomomorpha, the known secretions of nymphs of Pentatomidae tend to contain the hydrocarbon, n-tridecane, a keto-aldehyde, and an (E)-2-alkenal as the most abundant components. In the Coreidae, the dorsal abdominal gland secretions of nymphs often contain little or no hydrocarbon, and the most abundant keto-aldehyde and (E)-2-alkenal are often of shorter chain-length than those of pentatomids. We hypothesized that the long chain compounds would be less potent than their shorter homologs, and that bugs that carry the former would benefit from a synergistic effect of n-tridecane. To test this hypothesis we used three different behavioral assays with ants. A predator–prey assay tested the deterrence of allomones toward predators; a vapor experiment tested the effectiveness of allomones in the gaseous phase toward predators; and application of allomones onto predators tested the effect of direct contact. The results substantiate the hypothesis of a synergistic effect between n-tridecane and longer chain keto-aldehyde and (E)-2-alkenal in deterring predators. The short chain keto-aldehyde 4-oxo-(E)-2-hexenal was highly effective on its own. Thus, it seems that different groups of the infraorder diverged in their strategies involving defensive chemicals. Implications of this divergence are discussed.

Keywords

Allomone Dorsal abdominal glands Nymphs Predators Keto-aldehydes n-tridecane 

Notes

Acknowledgments

Thanks to. J. Liebig for allowing us to conduct the predator assays with Harpegnathos saltator ants in his laboratory, and to K. Haight for facilitating these assays. We also thank C. Schwertner, G. Balme, B. Marazzi, P. Marek, and S. Olivier for helping with bug and ant collection and identification. Two anonymous reviewers, contributed to the improvement of this manuscript. The research was funded by the Center for Insect Science through NIH Training Grant #1 K12 GM000708 to DE and by a grant from the BIO5 institute, U. of A. to JXB.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media New York 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Dorit Eliyahu
    • 1
    Email author
  • Roxanne A. Ceballos
    • 1
  • Vahid Saeidi
    • 1
  • Judith X. Becerra
    • 2
  1. 1.Center for Insect ScienceUniversity of ArizonaTucsonUSA
  2. 2.Department of Biosphere 2University of ArizonaTucsonUSA

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