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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 38, Issue 6, pp 802–809 | Cite as

Substrate Temperature Constrains Recruitment and Trail Following Behavior in Ants

  • Louise van OudenhoveEmail author
  • Raphaël Boulay
  • Alain Lenoir
  • Carlos Bernstein
  • Xim Cerda
Article

Abstract

In many ant species, foragers use pheromones to communicate the location of resources to nestmates. Mass-recruiting species deposit long-lasting anonymous chemical trails, while group-recruiting species use temporary chemical trails. We studied how high temperature influenced the foraging behavior of a mass-recruiting species (Tapinoma nigerrimum) and a group-recruiting species (Aphaenogaster senilis) through pheromone decay. First, under controlled laboratory conditions, we examined the effect of temperature on the trail pheromone of both species. A substrate, simulating soil, marked with gaster extract was heated for 10 min. at 25°, 35°, 45°, or 55 °C and offered to workers in a choice test. Heating gaster extract reduced the trail following behavior of the mass-recruiters significantly more than that of the group-recruiters. Second, analyses of the chemicals present on the substrate indicated that most T. nigerrimum gaster secretions vanished at 25 °C, and only iridodials persisted up to 55 °C. By contrast, A. senilis secretions were less volatile and resisted better to elevated temperatures to some extent. However, at 55 °C, the only chemicals that persisted were nonadecene and nonadecane. Overall, our results suggest that the foraging behavior of the group-recruiting species A. senilis is less affected by pheromone evaporation than that of the mass-recruiting species T. nigerrimum. This group-recruiting species might, thus, be particularly adapted to environments with fluctuating temperatures.

Keywords

Ant communities Trail pheromone Temperature Competition Tapinoma nigerrimum Aphaenogaster senilis 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank two anonymous referees for helpful comments. We are grateful to Jessica Pearce for revision of the manuscript (and English checking). Doñana National Park authorities gave permission to collect ant colonies. Experimental work in EBD have been funded by Spanish Ministerio de Ciencia e Innovación/FEDER (projects CGL2009-09690/BOS and CGL2009-12472/BOS). This work conforms to the legal requirements of the Spanish law.

Supplementary material

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ESM 1 (PDF 21 kb)

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Louise van Oudenhove
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
    • 4
    Email author
  • Raphaël Boulay
    • 4
    • 5
  • Alain Lenoir
    • 6
  • Carlos Bernstein
    • 1
    • 2
    • 3
  • Xim Cerda
    • 4
  1. 1.Université de LyonLyonFrance
  2. 2.Université Lyon 1LyonFrance
  3. 3.CNRS, UMR5558, Laboratoire de Biométrie et Biologie ÉvolutiveVilleurbanneFrance
  4. 4.Estación Biológica de Doñana, CSICSevillaSpain
  5. 5.Depto. Biología Animal. Facultad de CienciasUniversidad de GranadaGranadaSpain
  6. 6.CNRS UMR7261, Institut de Recherche de Biologie de l’Insecte, Faculté des Sciences de TechniquesUniversité François RabelaisToursFrance

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