Flavonoid Metabolites in the Hemolymph of European Pine Sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer) Larvae
Flavonoids in the hemolymph of European pine sawfly (Neodiprion sertifer) larvae that were feeding on Pinus sylvestris needles were identified. HPLC–ESI–MS analysis revealed that the main components in the hemolymph were flavonol di- and triglucosides and a catechin monoglucoside. These compounds were isolated from the larval hemolymph and their structures were established by HPLC–MS, GC–MS, and NMR spectroscopy. The isolated flavonoids were identified as (+)-catechin 7-O-β-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3,7,4′-tri-O-β-glucoside, kaempferol 3,7,4′-tri-O-β-glucoside, and quercetin 3,7,4′-tri-O-β-glucoside. The combined concentration of these four compounds in the hemolymph was 3.7 mg/ml. None of these compounds was present in the needles of P. sylvestris. Therefore, we propose that the flavonoid glucosides were produced by the larvae from flavonoid monoglucosides and (+)-catechin obtained from the pine needles.
KeywordsEuropean pine sawfly Scots pine Hemolymph Flavonoid glycosides Hymenoptera Diprionidae
The authors thank Antti Pouttu for helping to find the larvae and Olli Martiskainen for advice with the analytical equipment. Maarit Karonen, Jaana Liimatainen, Johanna Moilanen, and Anu Tuominen kindly reviewed the earlier versions of the manuscript. We acknowledge the University of Turku Strategic Research Grant (Ecological Interactions) that enabled the purchase of the UHPLC–MS system used. This work was supported by grants from Kone Foundation, Niemi Foundation and Turku University Foundation.
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