Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 38, Issue 2, pp 195–203

Influence of Phenological Stage on Swainsonine and Endophyte Concentrations in Oxytropis sericea

  • Daniel Cook
  • Lei Shi
  • Dale R. Gardner
  • James A. Pfister
  • Daniel Grum
  • Kevin D. Welch
  • Michael H. Ralphs
Article

Abstract

Locoweeds are defined as Astragalus and Oxytropis species that cause intoxication due to the alkaloid swainsonine. Swainsonine concentrations in Oxytropis sericea were influenced by location, plant part, and the developmental stage of the plant. Concentrations followed similar trends at each location, generally increasing over the growing season in above-ground parts until the plant reaches maturity with no change in concentration in the crowns. At the onset of senescence, swainsonine decreased in floral parts to less than half of the peak concentration. Similar to swainsonine concentrations, endophyte amounts were influenced by location, plant part, and the developmental stage of the plant. Likewise, endophyte amounts generally increased over the growing season in above ground parts and remained static in the crowns at all four locations. Swainsonine in Oxytropis sericea was positively associated with the endophyte Undifilum, which is responsible for swainsonine biosynthesis.

Keywords

Locoweed Astragalus Oxytropis Swainsonine Undifilum Endophyte Phenology 

Supplementary material

10886_2012_67_MOESM1_ESM.doc (70 kb)
ESM 1(DOC 69 kb)

References

  1. Braun, K., Romero, J., Liddell, C., and Creamer, R. 2003. Production of swainsonine by fungal endophytes of locoweed. Mycol. Res. 107:980–988.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  2. Cao, G. R., Li, S. J., Duan, D. X., Molyneux, R. J., James, L. F., Wang, K., and Tong, C. 1992. The toxic principle of Chinese locoweeds (Oxytropis and Astragalus): Toxicity in goats, pp. 117–121, in L. F. James, R. F. Keeler, P. R. Cheeke, E. M. Bailey Jr., and M. P. Hegarty (eds.), Poisonous Plants. Iowa State University Press: Ames, Iowa.Google Scholar
  3. Colodel, E. M., Gardner, D. R., Zlotowski, P., and Driemeier, D. 2002. Identification of swainsonine as a glycoside inhibitor responsible for Sida carpinifolia poisoning. Vet. Hum. Toxicol. 44:177–178.Google Scholar
  4. Colegate, S. M., Dorling, P. R., and Huxtable, C. R. 1979. A spectroscopic investigation of swainsonine: An alpha-mannosidase inhibitor isolated from Swainsona canescens. Aust. J. Chem. 32:2257–2264.Google Scholar
  5. Cook, D., Ralphs, M. H., Welch, K. D., and Stegelmeier, B. L. 2009a. Locoweed poisoning in livestock. Rangelands. 31:16–21.Google Scholar
  6. Cook, D., Gardner, D. R., Ralphs, M. H., Pfister, J. A., Welch, K. D., and Green, B. T. 2009b. Swainsonine concentrations and endophyte amounts of Undifilum oxytropis in different plant parts of Oxytropis sericea. J. Chem. Ecol. 35:1272–1278.Google Scholar
  7. Cook, D., Gardner, D. R., Welch, K. D., Roper, J. M., Ralphs, M. H., and Green, B. T. 2009c. Quantitative PCR method to measure the fungal endophyte in locoweeds. J. Agric. Food Chem. 57:6050–6054.Google Scholar
  8. Cook, D., Gardner, D. R., Grum, D. S., Pfister, J. A., Ralphs, M. H., Welch, K. D., and Green, B. T. 2011. Swainsonine and endophyte relationships in Astragalus mollissimus and Astragalus lentiginosus. J. Agric. Food Chem. 59:1281–1287.Google Scholar
  9. Dantas, A. F. M., Riet-Correa, F., Gardner, D. R., Medeiros, R. M. T., Barros, S. S., Anjos, B. L., and Lucena, R. B. 2007. Swainsonine-induced lysosomal storage disease in goats caused by the ingestion of Turbina cordata in Northeastern Brazil. Toxicon 49:111–116.Google Scholar
  10. Dreyer, D. L., Jones, K. C., and Molyneux, R. J. 1985. Feeding deterrency of some pyrrolizidine, indolizidine, and quinolizidine alkaloids towards pea aphid (Acyrthosiphon pisum) and evidence for phloem transport of indolizidine alkaloid swainsonine. J. Chem. Ecol. 11:1045–1051.Google Scholar
  11. Gardner, D. R., and Cook, D. 2011. A comparison of alternative sample preparation procedures for the analysis of swainsonine using LC-MS/MS. Phytochem. Anal. 22:124–127.Google Scholar
  12. Gardner, D. R., Molyneux, R. J., and Ralphs, M. H. 2001. Analysis of swainsonine: extraction methods, detection, and measurement in populations of locoweeds (Oxytropis spp.). J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:4573–4580.Google Scholar
  13. James, L. F., and Nielsen, D. 1988. Locoweeds: Assessment of the problem on western U. S. rangelands. in L. F. James, M. H. Ralphs, and D. B. Nielsen (eds.), The ecology and economic impact of poisonous plants on livestock production (pp. 171–180). Westview Press, Boulder, CO.Google Scholar
  14. Justus, M, Witte, L., and Hartmann, T. 1997. Levels and tissue distribution of loline alkaloids in endophyte-infected Festuca pratensis. Phytochemistry 44:51–57.Google Scholar
  15. Keogh, R. G., Tapper, B. A., and Fletcher, R. H. 1996. Distribution of a fungal endophyte Acremonium lolii, and of the alkaloids lolitrem B and peramine, within perennial ryegrass. NZ J. Agric. Res. 39:121–127.Google Scholar
  16. Kingsbury, J. M. 1964. Poisonous plants of the United States and Canada, pp 305–313. Prentice Hall, Englewood Cliffs, NJ.Google Scholar
  17. Molyneux, R. J., and Gomez-Sosa, E. 1991. Presencia del alcaloide indolizidinico swainsonine en Astragalus pehuenches (Leguminosae - Galegueae). Bol. Soc. Argent. Bot. 27:59-64.Google Scholar
  18. Molyneux, R. J., James, L. F. 1982. Loco intoxication: Indolizidine alkaloids of spotted locoweed (Astragalus lentiginosus). Science 216:190-191.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  19. Molyneux, R. J., James, L. F., Ralphs, M. H., Pfister, J. A., Panter, K. E., and Nash, R. J. 1994. Polyhydroxy alkaloid glycosidase inhibitors from poisonous plants of global distribution: analysis and identification, pp. 107–112, in S. M. Colegate and P. R. Dorling (eds.), Plant-Associated Toxins, Agricultural, Phytochemical, and Ecological Aspects, CAB International, Wallingford, UK.Google Scholar
  20. Molyneux, R. J., Mckenzie, R. A., O'Sullivan, B. M., and Elbein, A. D. 1995. Identification of the glycosidase inhibitors swainsonine and calystegine B2 in Weir vine (Ipomoea sp. Q6 [aff. calobra]) and correlation with toxicity. J. Nat. Prod. 58:878–886.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  21. Oldrup, E., Mcclain-Romero, J., Padilla, A., Moya, A., Gardner, D. R., and Creamer, R. 2010. Localization of endophytic Undifilum fungi in locoweed seed and influence of environmental parameters on a locoweed in vitro culture system. Botany 88:512–521.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  22. Pryor, B. M., Creamer, R., Shoemaker, R. A., Mcclain-Romero, J., and Hambleton, S. 2009. Undifilum, a new genus for endophytic Embellisia oxytropis and parasitic Helminthosporium bornmuelleri on legumes. Botany 87:178–194.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  23. Ralphs, M. H. 1987. Cattle grazing white locoweed: influence of grazing pressure and palatability associated with phenological growth stage. J. Range Manage. 40:330–332.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  24. Ralphs, M. H., Cook, D., Gardner, D. R., and Grum, D. S. 2011. Transmission of the locoweed endophyte to the next generation of plants. Fungal Ecol. 4:251–255.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  25. Ralphs, M. H., Creamer, R., Baucom, D., Gardner, D. R, Welsh, S. L., Graham, J. D., Hart, C., Cook, D., and Stegelmeier, B. L. 2008. Relationship between the endophyte Embellisia Spp. and the toxic alkaloid swainsonine in major locoweed species (Astragalus and Oxytropis). J. Chem. Ecol. 34:32–38.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
  26. Ralphs, M. H., Graham, D, and James, L. F. 1994. Cattle grazing white locoweed in New Mexico: influence of grazing pressure and phonological growth stage. J. Range Manage. 47:270–274.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  27. Ralphs, M. H., Graham, D, Molyneux, R. J., and James, L. F. (1993). Seasonal grazing of locoweeds by cattle in northeastern New Mexico. J. Range Manage. 416–420.Google Scholar
  28. Rottinghaus, G. E., Garner, G. B., Cornell, C. N., and Ellis, J. L. 1991. HPLC method for quantitating ergovaline in endophyte-infested tall fescue: seasonal variation of ergovaline levels in stems with leaf sheaths, leaf blades, and seed heads. J. Agric. Food Chem. 39:112–115.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
  29. Wang, Q., Nagao, H., Li, Y., Wang, H., and Kakishima, M. 2006. Embellisia oxytropis, a new species isolated from Oxytropis kansuensis in China. Mycotaxon 95:255–260.Google Scholar
  30. White, T. J., Bruns, T., Lee, S., and Taylor, J. 1990. Amplification and direct sequencing of fungal ribosomal RNA genes for phylogenetics, pp. 315–322, in M. A. Innis, D. H. Gelfand, J. Sninsky and T. J. White (eds.). PCR Protocols: a guide to methods and Applications. Academic Press, San Diego, CA.Google Scholar
  31. Young, C. A., Bryant, M. K., Christensen, M. J., Tapper, B. A., Bryan, G. T., and Scott, B. 2005. Molecular cloning and genetic analysis of a symbiosis-expressed gene cluster for lolitrem biosynthesis from a mutualistic endophyte of perennial ryegrass. Mol. Gen. Genomics 274:13–29.CrossRefGoogle Scholar

Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC (outside the USA) 2012

Authors and Affiliations

  • Daniel Cook
    • 1
  • Lei Shi
    • 1
  • Dale R. Gardner
    • 1
  • James A. Pfister
    • 1
  • Daniel Grum
    • 1
  • Kevin D. Welch
    • 1
  • Michael H. Ralphs
    • 1
  1. 1.Poisonous Plant Research Laboratory, Agricultural Research ServiceUnited States Department of AgricultureLoganUSA

Personalised recommendations