Effect of Water Stress and Fungal Inoculation on Monoterpene Emission from an Historical and a New Pine Host of the Mountain Pine Beetle
- 514 Downloads
The mountain pine beetle (Dendroctonus ponderosae, MPB) has killed millions of lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) trees in Western Canada, and recent range expansion has resulted in attack of jack pine (Pinus banksiana) in Alberta. Establishment of MPB in the Boreal forest will require use of jack pine under a suite of environmental conditions different from those it typically encounters in its native range. Lodgepole and jack pine seedlings were grown under controlled environment conditions and subjected to either water deficit or well watered conditions and inoculated with Grosmannia clavigera, a MPB fungal associate. Soil water content, photosynthesis, stomatal conductance, and emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were monitored over the duration of the six-week study. Monoterpene content of bark and needle tissue was measured at the end of the experiment. β-Phellandrene, the major monoterpene in lodgepole pine, was almost completely lacking in the volatile emission profile of jack pine. The major compound in jack pine was α-pinene. The emission of both compounds was positively correlated with stomatal conductance. 3-Carene was emitted at a high concentration from jack pine seedlings, which is in contrast to monoterpene profiles of jack pine from more southern and eastern parts of its range. Fungal inoculation caused a significant increase in total monoterpene emission in water deficit lodgepole pine seedlings right after its application. By 4 weeks into the experiment, water deficit seedlings of both species released significantly lower levels of total monoterpenes than well watered seedlings. Needle tissue contained lower total monoterpene content than bark. Generally, monoterpene tissue content increased over time independent from any treatment. The results suggest that monoterpenes that play a role in pine-MPB interactions differ between lodgepole and jack pine, and also that they are affected by water availability.
Key WordsPinus contorta Pinus banksiana VOCs Monoterpenes Tree defense Grosmannia clavigera Mountain pine beetle
We thank two anonymous reviewers for helpful suggestions on an earlier version of this manuscript. We acknowledge the lab members of Janice E. K. Cooke as well as Boyd Mori for help potting the seedlings; Miles Dyck for providing us with the TDR equipment; Celia Boone for sharing β-phellandrene; Patrick James for an introduction to R; and Joanne Mann (West Fraser Mills Ltd., Hinton Wood Products), Michael Bendzsak (Saskatchewan Forest Centre), and Glenn Goodwill, Candace Kent and Stewart Haywood-Farmer (PRT) for providing seedlings. We particularly acknowledge Adrianne Rice for providing fungal culture and knowledge, and Jeremiah Bolstad and Andrew Ho for the help during the sample extraction process.
Funding for this research has been provided through grants from the Government of Alberta through Genome Alberta, the Government of British Columbia through Genome BC and Genome Canada in support of the Tria 1 and Tria 2 projects (http://www.thetriaproject.ca) of which MLE, JEKC, and NE are co-investigators.
- Blanch, J.-S., Peñuelas J., and Llusià, J. 2007. Sensitivity of terpene emissions to drought and fertilization in terpene-storing Pinus halepensis and non-storing Quercus ilex. Physiol. Plantarum 131:221–225.Google Scholar
- Bohm, B. A. 2009. The Geography of Phytochemical Races. Springer, New York.Google Scholar
- Breshears, D. D., Myers, O. B., Meyer, C. W., Barnes, F. J., Zou, C. B., Allen, C. D., McDowell, N. G., and Pockman, W. T. 2009. Tree die-off in response to global change-type drought: Mortality insights from a decade of plant water potential measurements. Front. Ecol. Environ. 7:185–189.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Carroll, A. L., Régnière, J., Logan, J. A., Taylor, S. W., Bentz, B. J., and Powell, J. A. 2006. Impacts of climate change on range expansion by the mountain pine beetle. Natural Resources Canada, Canadian Forest Service, Pacific Forestry Centre, Victoria, BC. Mountain Pine Beetle Initiative Working Paper 2006-14. p. 20.Google Scholar
- Conn, J. E. 1981. Pheromone Production and Control Mechanisms in Dendroctonus ponderosae Hopkins. M.Sc. thesis, Simon Fraser University, Burnaby, B.C.Google Scholar
- Critchfield, W. B. 1957. Geographic Variation in Pinus contorta. Harvard University, Cambridge, Massachusetts. Maria Moors Cabot Found. Publ. 3.Google Scholar
- Heijari, J., Blandea, J. D., and Holopainen, J. K. 2011. Feeding of large pine weevil on Scots pine stem triggers localised bark and systemic shoot emission of volatile organic compounds. Environ. Exp. Bot. 71:390–398.Google Scholar
- Hillel, D. 1998. Environmental Soil Physics. Academic Press, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
- Hodges, J. D. and Lorio Jr., P. L. 1975. Moisture stress and composition of xylem oleoresin in loblolly pine. For. Sci. 21:283–290.Google Scholar
- Legendre, P. and Legendre, L. 1998. Numerical Ecology. Elsevier, Amsterdam.Google Scholar
- Legendre, P. and Durand, S. 2010. rdaTest: Canonical redundancy analysis (R package version 1.7). URL http://www.bio.umontreal.ca/legendre/.
- Llusià, J. and Peñuelas, J. 1998. Changes in terpene content and emission in potted Mediterranean woody plants under severe drought. Can. J. Bot. 76:1366–1373.Google Scholar
- McDowell, N., Pockman, W. T., Allen, C. D., Breshears, D. D., Cobb, N., Kolb, T., Plaut, J., Sperry, J., West, A., Williams, D. G., and Yepez, E. A. 2008. Mechanisms of plant survival and mortality during drought: Why do some plants survive while others succumb to drought? New Phytol. 178:719–739.PubMedCrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Oksanen, j., Blanchet, F. G., Kindt, R., Legendre, P., O’Hara, R. B., Simpson, G. L., Sólymos, P., Stevens, M. H. H., and Wagner, H. 2010. vegan: Community ecology package. R package version 1.17-4. http://CRAN.R-project.org/package=vegan.
- R Development Core Team 2010. R: A language and environment for statistical computing (version 2.12.0). R Foundation for Statistical Computing, Vienna, Austria. URL http://www.R-project.org.
- Raffa, K. F., Aukema, B. H., Erbilgin, N., Klepzig, K. D., and Wallin, K. F. 2005. Interactions among conifer terpenoids and bark beetles across multiple levels of scale: An attempt to understand links between population patterns and physiological processes. Recent Adv. Phytochemistry 39:79–118.CrossRefGoogle Scholar
- Robinson, D. A., Jones, S. B., Wraith, J. M., Or, D., and Friedman, S. P. 2003. A review of advances in dielectric and electrical conductivity measurement in soils using time domain reflectometry. Vadose Zone J. 2:444–475.Google Scholar
- Rudinsky, J. A., Morgan, M. E., Libbey, L. M., and Putnam, T. B. 1974. Antiaggregative-rivalry pheromone of the mountain pine beetle, and a new arrestant of the southern pine beetle. Environ. Entomol. 3(1):90–98.Google Scholar
- Sharkey, T. D. 1991. Stomatal control of trace gas emissions, pp 335–339, in T. D. Sharkey, E. A. Holland, and H. A. Mooney (eds.), Trace Gas Emissions by Plants. Academic Press, San Diego, California.Google Scholar
- Tkacz, B. M. and Schmitz, R. F. 1986. Association of an endemic mountain pine beetle population with lodgepole pine infected by armillaria root disease in Utah. USDA For. Serv. Res. Note INT-353.Google Scholar
- Vidacović, M. 1991. Conifers: Morphology and Variation. Graficki Zavod Hrvatske, Zagreb, Croatia.Google Scholar
- Williams, D. W. and Liebhold, A. M. 2002. Climate change and the outbreak ranges of two North American bark beetles. Agr. For. Entomol. 4:87–99.Google Scholar
- [www.for.gov.bc.ca] British Columbia. Ministry of Forests, Lands and Natural Resource Operations. http://www.for.gov.bc.ca/hfp/mountain_pine_beetle/Updated-Beetle-Facts_Mar2010.pdf