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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 36, Issue 6, pp 570–583 | Cite as

Identification and Field Activity of a Male-Produced Aggregation Pheromone in the Pine Sawyer Beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis

  • Juan A. Pajares
  • Gonzalo Álvarez
  • Fernando Ibeas
  • Diego Gallego
  • David R. Hall
  • Dudley I. Farman
Article

Abstract

The pine sawyer beetle, Monochamus galloprovincialis, is a pest of pine trees in Europe and North Africa. Previously considered a secondary pest of stressed and dying trees, it is now receiving considerable attention as a vector of the pine wood nematode, Bursaphelenchus xylophilus, the causal agent of a lethal wilting disease in susceptible species of pines. Adult beetles are attracted to traps baited with a kairomone blend consisting of a host volatile, α-pinene, and two bark beetle pheromone components, ipsenol and 2-methyl-3-buten-2-ol. More recently it has been shown that mature male M. galloprovincialis produce a pheromone that attracts mature females in a laboratory bioassay. Here, volatiles were collected from mature male and female M. galloprovincialis, and a compound produced specifically by mature males was identified as 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol from its gas chromatographic retention times, its mass spectrum, and by comparison with synthetic standards. The naturally-derived and synthetic compounds elicited electroantennographic responses from both females and males. Sealed polyethylene vials and polyethylene sachets were shown to be effective dispensers with zero-order release, the latter giving a higher release rate than the former. In two field tests, multiple-funnel traps baited with synthetic 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol caught both female and male M. galloprovincialis, with higher catches at the higher release rate. This compound also synergized the attractiveness of the kairomone blend, the combined mixture catching 80–140% more beetles than the sum of the catches to each bait separately and luring up to two beetles/trap/d in a moderate-density population. We conclude that 2-undecyloxy-1-ethanol is a male-produced aggregation pheromone of M. galloprovincialis. This is the first example of a sex-specific compound in the cerambycid subfamily Lamiinae with significant behavioral activity in the field at a range sufficient to make it a useful trap bait. The possible roles of this pheromone in the chemical ecology of M. galloprovincialis and its potential use in pine wilt disease management are discussed.

Key Words

Aggregation pheromone Bursaphelenchus xylophilus Cerambycidae Ethers Gas chromatography-electroantennographic recording Kairomone Lamiinae Monochaminae Monochamus galloprovincialis Pine sawyer Pine wilt disease Pine wood nematode Trapping 2-Undecyloxy-1-ethanol 

Notes

Acknowledgments

We thank J. M. Sierra, A. Martín, G. Pérez (Centro de Sanidad Forestal de Calabazanos, Junta de Castilla y León, Spain), G. Sánchez (Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Spain), J .D. Cabezas (Parque Regional de Sierra Espuña, Spain), I. Etxebeste and J.L. Lencina (University of Valladolid) for technical assistance. This research has been financially supported by the Dirección General de Medio Natural y Política Forestal, Ministerio de Medio Ambiente, y Medio Rural y Marino, Spain.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010

Authors and Affiliations

  • Juan A. Pajares
    • 1
  • Gonzalo Álvarez
    • 1
  • Fernando Ibeas
    • 1
  • Diego Gallego
    • 2
  • David R. Hall
    • 3
  • Dudley I. Farman
    • 3
  1. 1.Institute of Sustainable ForestryUniversity of ValladolidPalenciaSpain
  2. 2.Departamento de Zoología y Antropología FísicaUniversity of MurciaMurciaSpain
  3. 3.Natural Resources InstituteUniversity of GreenwichKentUK

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