Prothoracic Gland Semiochemicals of Green Lacewings
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Adult chrysopids have paired prothoracic glands (PG) that are thought to produce defensive secretions (allomones). We analyzed PG extracts of the following green lacewings from North and South America, Australia, and China: Ceraeochrysa cubana (Brazil); Chrysopa (= Co.) oculata, Co. nigricornis, Co. incompleta, Co. quadripunctata (USA), and Co. septempunctata (China); Chrysoperla (= Cl.) rufilabris (USA) and Cl. sp. (Brazil); Plesiochrysa ramburi and Mallada spp. (Australia). PG secretions are characteristic for species within a genus, except for Chrysopa spp. (Z)-4-Tridecene is ubiquitous, but (Z,Z)-4,7-tridecadiene is a major PG constituent in some Chrysopa spp. and in P. ramburi. Earlier reports that Co. oculata and Co. nigricornis produce 1-tridecene were shown to be in error. Chrysopa PG secretions are distinguished by the presence or absence of N-3-methylbutylacetamide, plus skatole (3-methylindole). Skatole is also identified for the first time from the Plesiochrysa and Ceraeochrysa. The PG secretion in Plesiochrysa ramburi is characterized by the presence of (Z)-4-undecene instead of (Z)-4-tridecene, and N-3-methylbutylpropanamide instead of the acetamide, resembling the PG secretions of Chrysopa nigricornis, Co. septempunctata and Co. incompleta. The chemotaxonomic value of PG semiochemicals is discussed, including evidence for subgroups within the genus Chrysopa as it now stands.
KeywordsPheromone Allomone Tridecene Skatole Iridodial Amide Chemotaxonomy Predator Biosynthesis Neuroptera Chrysopidae
Thanks and appreciation go to Dr. Christer Lofstedt, Section of Chemical Ecology, Lund University, Sweden, for sharing his thoughts on the biosynthesis of PG semiochemicals; to Dr. Harry Fay, Horticulture and Forestry Science, Queensland Department of Primary Industries and Fisheries, Mareeba, Australia, for coordinating the travel and research in Australia for JRA; and to Andy Carmichael, Systematic Entomology Laboratory, Beltsville, MD, for his technical support.
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