Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 35, Issue 7, pp 844–850

Chemotaxis Disruption in Pratylenchus Scribneri by Tall Fescue Root Extracts and Alkaloids

  • Ada A. Bacetty
  • Maurice E. Snook
  • Anthony E. Glenn
  • James P. Noe
  • Padmaja Nagabhyru
  • Charles W. Bacon
Article

Abstract

Tall fescue (Festuca arundinacea) forms a symbiotic relationship with the clavicipitalean fungal endophyte Neotyphodium coenophialum. Endophyte-infected grass is tolerant to nematode, but the factors responsible are unknown. One objective of this work was to determine if root extracts of tall fescue effected chemoreceptor activity of Pratylenchus scribneri by using an in vitro chemoreception bioassay. Another objective was to determine if specific ergot alkaloids (ergovaline, ergotamine, a-ergocryptine, ergonovine), and loline alkaloids, all produced by the fungal endophyte, altered chemotaxis with this bioassay. Methanolic extract from roots altered chemotaxis activities in this nematode but only from roots of plants cultured 45 ≥ d, which repelled nematodes. Extracts prepared from noninfected grasses were attractants. This assay indicated that the alkaloids were either repellents or attractants. N-formylloline was an attractant at concentrations of 20 μg/ml and lower, while at higher concentrations it was a repellent. Ergovaline, the major ergot alkaloid produced by the endophyte, was repellent at both high and low concentrations and caused complete death of the nematodes.

Keywords

Chemoreception Ergovaline Ergot alkaloids Festuca arundinacea Fungal endophyte Loline alkaloids Neotyphodium coenophialum Pratylenchus scribneri Tall fescue 

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Copyright information

© US Government 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Ada A. Bacetty
    • 1
    • 2
  • Maurice E. Snook
    • 1
  • Anthony E. Glenn
    • 1
  • James P. Noe
    • 2
  • Padmaja Nagabhyru
    • 3
  • Charles W. Bacon
    • 1
  1. 1.Toxicology & Mycotoxin Research UnitUSDA, ARS Russell Research CenterAthensUSA
  2. 2.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of GeorgiaAthensUSA
  3. 3.Department of Plant PathologyUniversity of KentuckyLexingtonUSA

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