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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, Volume 35, Issue 2, pp 154–162 | Cite as

Essential Oil of Artemisia scoparia Inhibits Plant Growth by Generating Reactive Oxygen Species and Causing Oxidative Damage

  • Harminder Pal Singh
  • Shalinder Kaur
  • Sunil Mittal
  • Daizy Rani Batish
  • Ravinder Kumar Kohli
Article

Abstract

We investigated the chemical composition and phytotoxicity of the essential oil extracted from leaves of Artemisia scoparia Waldst. et Kit. (red stem wormwood, Asteraceae). GC/GC-MS analyses revealed 33 chemical constituents representing 99.83% of the oil. The oil, in general, was rich in monoterpenes that constitute 71.6%, with β-myrcene (29.27%) as the major constituent followed by (+)-limonene (13.3%), (Z)-β-ocimene (13.37%), and γ-terpinene (9.51%). The oil and β-myrcene were evaluated in a dose–response bioassay under laboratory conditions for phytotoxicity against three weeds—Avena fatua, Cyperus rotundus, and Phalaris minor. A significant reduction in germination, seedling growth, and dry matter accumulation was observed in the test weeds. At the lowest treatment of 0.07 mg/ml Artemisia oil, germination was reduced by 39%, 19%, and 10.6% in C. rotundus, P. minor, and A. fatua, respectively. However, the inhibitory effect of β-myrcene was less. In general, a dose-dependent effect was observed and the growth declined with increasing concentration. Among the three weeds, the inhibitory effect was greatest on C. rotundus, so it was selected for further studies. We explored the explanation for observed growth inhibition in terms of reactive oxygen species (ROS: lipid peroxidation, membrane integrity, and amounts of conjugated dienes and hydrogen peroxide)-induced oxidative stress. Exposure of C. rotundus to Artemisia oil or β-myrcene enhanced solute leakage, indicating membrane disintegration. There were increased levels of malondialdehyde and hydrogen peroxide, indicating lipid peroxidation and induction of oxidative stress. We conclude that Artemisia oil inhibits plant root growth through generation of ROS-induced oxidative damage.

Keywords

Artemisia scoparia Conjugated dienes Electrolyte leakage Essential oil Growth inhibition Hydrogen peroxide Lipid peroxidation β-Myrcene Oxidative damage 

Notes

Acknowledgement

Shalinder Kaur and Sunil Mittal are thankful to Department of Science and Technology, Government of India, New Delhi, and University Grants Commission, New Delhi, India, respectively, for the financial assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2009

Authors and Affiliations

  • Harminder Pal Singh
    • 1
  • Shalinder Kaur
    • 2
  • Sunil Mittal
    • 1
  • Daizy Rani Batish
    • 2
  • Ravinder Kumar Kohli
    • 1
    • 2
  1. 1.Centre for Environment and Vocational StudiesPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia
  2. 2.Department of BotanyPanjab UniversityChandigarhIndia

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