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Journal of Chemical Ecology

, 34:1230 | Cite as

Soybean (Glycine max) Root Lignification Induced by Ferulic Acid. The Possible Mode of Action

  • W. D. dos Santos
  • M. L. L. Ferrarese
  • C. V. Nakamura
  • K. S. M. Mourão
  • C. A. Mangolin
  • O. Ferrarese-FilhoEmail author
Article

Abstract

Ferulic acid, in the form of feruloyl CoA, occupies a central position as an intermediate in the phenylpropanoid pathway. Due to the allelopathic function, its effects were tested on root growth, H2O2 and lignin contents, and activities of cinnamyl alcohol dehydrogenase (CAD, EC 1.1.1.195) and peroxidase (POD, EC 1.11.1.7) from soybean (Glycine max (L.) Merr.) root seedlings. Three-day-old seedlings were cultivated in half-strength Hoagland's solution (pH 6.0), with or without 1.0 mM ferulic acid in a growth chamber (25°C, 12/12 hr light/dark photoperiod, irradiance of 280 μmol m−2 s−1) for 24 or 48 hr. Exogenously supplied ferulic acid induced premature cessation of root growth, with disintegration of the root cap, compression of cells in the quiescent center, increase of the vascular cylinder diameter, and earlier lignification of the metaxylem. Moreover, the allelochemical decreased CAD activity and H2O2 level and increased the anionic isoform PODa5 activity and lignin content. The lignin monomer composition of ferulic acid-exposed roots revealed a significant increase of guaiacyl (G) units. When applied jointly with piperonylic acid (an inhibitor of the cinnamate 4-hydroxylase, C4H), ferulic acid increased lignin content. By contrast, the application of 3,4-(methylenedioxy) cinnamic acid (an inhibitor of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase, 4CL) with ferulic acid did not. Taken together, these results suggest that ferulic acid may be channeled into the phenylpropanoid pathway (by the 4CL reaction) and, further, may increase the lignin monomer amount solidifying the cell wall and restricting the root growth.

Keywords

Allelopathy Cinamyl alcohol dehydrogenase Lignin Phenylpropanoid pathway Root growth Soybean 

Notes

Acknowledgements

Research was financially supported by the Conselho Nacional de Desenvolvimento Científico e Tecnológico (CNPq). O. Ferrarese-Filho and M.L.L. Ferrarese are research fellows of CNPq. W.D. dos Santos is the recipient of a CNPq fellowship. The authors thank Dr. Wanderley de Souza and Maria de Fátima P. S. Machado for cooperation in extending instrumental facilities. The authors thank Aparecida M.D. Ramos and Gisele A. Bubna for their technical assistance.

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Copyright information

© Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2008

Authors and Affiliations

  • W. D. dos Santos
    • 1
  • M. L. L. Ferrarese
    • 1
  • C. V. Nakamura
    • 1
  • K. S. M. Mourão
    • 1
  • C. A. Mangolin
    • 1
  • O. Ferrarese-Filho
    • 1
    Email author
  1. 1.Laboratory of Plant Biochemistry, Department of BiochemistryUniversity of MaringáMaringáBrazil

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