Tolerance of Drosophila Flies to Ibotenic Acid Poisons in Mushrooms
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The mushroom genus Amanita has a spectrum of chemical compounds affecting survival and performance of animals. Ibotenic acid is one of such compounds found in some Amanita mushrooms. We studied the effects of ibotenic acid and its derivative, muscimol, on egg-to-pupa survival, pupation time, and pupal size in five Drosophila species (Diptera: Drosophilidae), Drosophila bizonata, Drosophila angularis, Drosophila brachynephros, Drosophila immigrans, and Drosophila melanogaster. The first three species are mycophagous and use a wide range of mushrooms for breeding, whereas D. immigrans and D. melanogaster are frugivorous. We reared fly larvae on artificial medium with 500, 250, 125, and 62.5 μg/ml of ibotenic acid and/or musimol. The three mycophagous species were not susceptible to ibotenic acid, whereas the two frugivorous species were affected. In experiments with D. melanogaster, muscimol was less toxic than ibotenic acid.
KeywordsIbotenic acid Amanita Drosophila Susceptibility Mycophagy
We thank Dr. John Romeo for his patient help and advice. We thank Prof. M. T. Kimura for improving the manuscript and the members of the Department of Ecology and Genetics, Graduate School of Environmental Earth Science, Hokkaido University, for their technical support. This work is supported in part by Grants-in-Aid (15380104 and 17405030) for Scientific Research (B) to C. Tanaka from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science and the COEs for Microbial-Process Development Pioneering Future Production Systems and Innovative Food and Environmental Studies Pioneered by Entomomimetic Sciences (the COE programs of the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology, Japan).
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