More Rare Males in Ostrinia: Response of Asian Corn Borer Moths to the Sex Pheromone of the European Corn Borer
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A previous flight tunnel study showed that 3–5% of European corn borer (ECB) moths, Ostrinia nubilalis (Z/E11-14:OAc), could fly upwind and make contact with sources releasing the sex pheromone of the related Asian corn borer (ACB), Ostrinia furnacalis (2:1 Z/E12-14:OAc). In this study, we show that rare males (3–4%) are also present in South Korean ACB that respond to the sex pheromone blends of the ECB UZ (97:3 Z/E11-14:OAc) and BE (1:99 Z/E11-14:OAc) pheromone races. We also show that the upwind flight response of a significant proportion of male ACB was antagonized by the addition of 1% Z9-14:OAc to the ACB blend, a compound that also antagonizes the upwind flight of ECB males. Male ACB flight behavior was not, however, affected by adding either of the ECB blends to the ACB blend, or by the addition of 50% 14:OAc, a compound identified from female pheromone glands of ACB and a number of other Ostrinia species. Additional flight tunnel tests with ACB to study the comparative aspects of ECB and ACB pheromone response specificity showed that male ACB exhibited maximal levels of upwind flight and source contact with doses of pheromone (30 and 100 μg on rubber septum sources) that also elicited maximal levels in the two ECB pheromone races. The maximal level of source contact for ACB (66%) was lower than observed with the UZ race of ECB to its pheromone blend (>95%), but comparable to those for the BE race of ECB (65–70%). Male ACB also flew upwind in high proportions to a broader range of ratios of Z/E12-14:OAc (80:20 to 20:80) than was previously observed for either of the ECB races.
KeywordsAsian corn borer Behavioral antagonist European corn borer Flight tunnel Ostrinia furnacalis Ostrinia nubilalis Pheromone evolution Response specificity Sex pheromone
We thank Kathy Poole for help in maintaining the ACB and ECB colonies, and Satoshi Nojima and Shannon Olsson for preparing the solutions for flight tunnel tests. The project was funded by NSF IBN #034340.
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