Behaviorally Active Green Leaf Volatiles for Monitoring the Leaf Beetle, Diorhabda elongata, a Biocontrol Agent of Saltcedar, Tamarix spp.
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Biological activity and chemistry of host plant volatiles were investigated for Diorhabda elongata, Brullé (Coleoptera: Chrysomelidae), a biological control agent for the invasive tree, saltcedar (Tamarix spp., Tamaricaceae). Gas chromatographic–electroantennographic detection (GC-EAD) analysis of volatiles collected from adult D. elongata feeding on saltcedar foliage or from saltcedar foliage alone showed 15 antennally active compounds. These compounds were more abundant in collections from beetle-infested foliage. Antennally active compounds were identified by GC–mass spectrometry (MS) and confirmed with authentic standards. The emissions of the most abundant GC-EAD-active compounds, green leaf volatiles (GLV), were quantitated by GC-MS. A blend of four GLV compounds, mimicking the natural blend ratio, was highly attractive to male and female D. elongata in the field, and a combination of GLV and male-produced aggregation pheromone attracted significantly greater numbers of D. elongata than did either bait alone. A preliminary experiment with a blend of seven additional GC-EAD-active saltcedar volatiles did not show any behavioral activity. The combination of the pheromone and the green leaf odor blend could be a useful attractant in detecting the presence of the biocontrol agent, D. elongata, in stands of saltcedar newly colonized by the beetle.
KeywordsBiological control Chrysomelidae Coleoptera Diorhabda elongata Electrophysiology Field evaluation Green leaf volatiles Host-odor attractants Saltcedar Tamarix ramosissima
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