Differences in Induced Volatile Emissions among Rice Varieties Result in Differential Attraction and Parasitism of Nilaparvata lugens Eggs by the Parasitoid Anagrus nilaparvatae in the Field
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We compared the volatiles of JA-treated plants of six rice varieties and then determined, in the laboratory and field, if they differed in attractiveness to Anagrus nilaparavate Pand et Wang, an egg parasitoid of rice planthoppers. Analyses of volatiles revealed significant differences among varieties, both in total quantity and quality of the blends emitted. On the basis of these differences, the six varieties could be roughly divided into three groups. In a Y-tube olfactometer, female wasps preferred odors from two groups. These preferences corresponded to observed parasitism rates in a field experiment. A comparison of the volatiles with results from behavioral assays and field experiments indicates that the quality (composition) of the blends is more important for attraction than the total amount emitted. The results imply that the foraging success of natural enemies of pests can be enhanced by breeding for crop varieties that release specific volatiles.
KeywordsRice Anagrus nilaparavate Nilaparvata lugens Induced plant volatiles Jasmonic acid Volatiles variability Host-searching behavior Parasitism Parasitoid
We thank Wenwen Song, Guoxin Zhou, and Xia Wang for assistance with laboratory work. The study was sponsored by the Ministry of Science and Technology of China (973) (G2000016208), the National Natural Science Foundation of China (30270233, 30370960), the Program for New Century Excellent Talents of the Ministry of Education of China (NCET-04-0534), and the Innovation Research Team Program of the Ministry of Education of China (IRT0355).
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